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Introduction:

Energy losses in pipe flows are the result of friction

between the fluid and the pipe walls and internal friction

between fluid particles. Minor (secondary) head losses

occur at any location in a pipe system where streamlines

are not straight, such as at pipe junctions, bends, valves,

contractions, expansions, and reservoir inlets and

outlets. In this experiment, minor head losses through a

pipe section that has several bends, transitions, and

fittings will be measured.

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

Purpose:

To determine the loss factors for flow through a

range of pipe fittings including bends, a contraction, an

enlargement and a gate-valve.

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

Apparatus:

Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings Apparatus.

It consists of:

- Sudden Enlargement

- Sudden Contraction

- Long Bend

- Short Bend

- Elbow Bend figure 1:minor losses apparatus

- Mitre Bend

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

Apparatus: (Cont.)

Flow rate through the circuit is controlled by a flow control

valve.

Pressure tappings in the circuit are connected to a twelve bank

manometer, which incorporates an air inlet/outlet valve in the

top manifold. An air bleed screw facilitates connection to a

hand pump. This enables the levels in the manometer bank to

be adjusted to a convenient level to suit the system static

pressure.

A clamp which closes off the tappings to the mitre bend is

introduced when experiments on the valve fitting are required.

A differential pressure gauge gives a direct reading of losses

through the gate valve.

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

Theory:

The energy balance between two points in a pipe

can be described by the Bernoulli equation, given

by p V p 2

V 2

z 1

z

1

h2 2

1

2g 2

2g

L

specific weight of the fluid (in N/m3), zi is the

elevation (in meters) of point i, Vi is the fluid

velocity (in m/s) at point i, g is the gravitational

constant (in m/s2), and hL is head loss (in meters).

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

the elevation head; and Vi2/2g is the dynamic (or

velocity) head. The summation of the static head

and the elevation head, pi/ + zi, is referred to as

the piezometric head. The piezometric head is

what is measured with the piezometer

(manometer) board on the apparatus for this

experiment.

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

hf, and all minor losses, hL h f hi

i 1n

where hi is the minor head loss (in meters) for the ith

component and n is the number of components (fittings,

bends, etc.).

Pipe friction losses are expressed as the Darcy-Weisbach

equation given by h f

LV2

f

D 2g

the pipe diameter. Pipe friction losses are assumed to

be negligible in this experiment.

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

(so-called secondary loss) is commonly expressed

in terms of a head loss (h, meters) in the form:

V2

h K

2g

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

v = mean velocity of flow into the fitting, For the

expansion and contraction, the V used is the velocity of

the fluid in the smaller-diameter pipe.

Because of the complexity of flow in many fittings, K is

usually determined by experiment. For the pipe fitting

experiment, the head loss is calculated from two

manometer readings, taken before and after each fitting,

and K is then determined as V 2

K h /

2g

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

through the enlargement and contraction, the

system experiences an additional change in static

pressure. This change can be calculated as

v1 / 2 g v 2 / 2 g

2 2

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

the measured head losses, this value should be

added to the head loss readings for the

enlargement and the contraction. Note that (h1 -

h2) will be negative for the enlargement and

v1 / 2 g v2 / 2 g will

2 2

be negative for the

contraction.

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

difference before and after gate is measured

directly using a pressure gauge. This can then be

converted to an equivalent head loss using the

equation

1 bar = 10.2 m water

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

Procedure:

It is not possible to make measurements on all fittings

simultaneously and, therefore, it is necessary to run two

separate tests.

o Part A:

1) Set up the losses apparatus on the hydraulic bench so that

its base is horizontal by adjusting the feet on the base plate

if necessary. (this is necessary for accurate height

measurements from the manometers). Connect the test rig

inlet to the bench flow supply and run the outlet extension

tube to the volumetric tank and secure it in place.

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

2) Fully open the gate valve and the outlet flow

control valve at the right hand end of the apparatus.

3) Close the bench flow control valve then start the

service pump.

4) Gradually open the bench flow control valve and

allow the pipework to fill with water until all air

has been expelled from the pipework.

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

5) In order to bleed air from pressure tapping points and the

manometers close both the bench valve and the test rig flow

control valve and open the air bleed screw and remove the

cap from the adjacent air valve. Connect a length of small

bore tubing from the air valve to the volumetric tank. Now,

open the bench valve and allow flow through the

manometers to purge all air from them; then, tighten the air

bleed screw and partly open both the bench valve and the

test rig flow control valve.

Next, open the air bleed screw slightly to allow air to enter

the top of the manometers, re-tighten the screw when the

manometer levels reach a convenient height.

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

6) Check that all manometer levels are on scale at the

maximum volume flow rate required

(approximately 17 liters/ minute). These levels can

be adjusted further by using the air bleed screw and

the hand pump supplies. The air bleed screw

controls the air flow through the air valve, so when

using the hand pump, the bleed screw must be

open. To retain the hand pump pressure in the

system, the screw must be closed after pumping.

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

7) If the levels in the manometer are too high then the hand

pump can be used to pressurise the top manifold. All levels

will decrease simultaneously but retain the appropriate

differentials.

If the levels are too low then the hand pump should be

disconnected and the air bleed screw opened briefly to

reduce the pressure in the top manifold. Alternatively the

outlet flow control valve can be closed to raise the static

pressure in the system which will raise all levels

simultaneously.

If the level in any manometer tube is allowed to drop too

low then air will enter the bottom manifold. If the level in

any manometer tube is too high then water will enter the top

manifold and flow into adjacent tubes.

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

8) Adjust the flow from the bench control valve and, at a

given flow rate, take height readings from all of the

manometers after the levels have steadied. In order to

determine the volume flow rate, you should carry out a

timed volume collection using the volumetric tank. This

is achieved by closing the ball valve and measuring

(with a stopwatch) time taken to accumulate a known

volume of fluid in the tank, which is read from the sight

glass. You should collect fluid for at least one minute to

minimize timing errors. ( note: valve should be kept

fully open.)

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

9) Repeat this procedure to give a total of at least five sets

of measurements over a flow range from approximately

8 - 17 liters per minute.

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

Procedure:

o Part B:

10) Clamp off the connecting tubes to the mitre bend pressure

tappings (to prevent air being drawn into the system).

11) Start with the gate valve closed and open fully both the

bench valve and the lest rig flow control valve.

12) open the gate valve by approximately 50% of one turn

(after taking up any backlash).

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

13) For each of at least 5 flow rates, measure pressure drop

across the valve from the pressure gauge; adjust the flow

rate by use of the test rig flow control valve. Once

measurements have started, do not adjust the gale valve.

Determine the volume flow rate by timed collection.

14) Repeat this procedure for the gate valve opened by

approximately 70% of one turn and then approximately 80%

of one turn.

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

The following dimensions from the equipment are used in the

appropriate calculations.

contraction inlet

d = 0.0240 m

Exp. (8) : Minor Losses

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