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Hydro Electric Energy

Presented By:
Bashir Ahmad

Roll No.
M.Sc-CE03-S18

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Hydro Electric Energy
Definition:
Hydropower is power, derived from the energy of falling water or fast
running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.

Hydropower types:
• Conventional hydroelectric:
It refers to hydroelectric dams
• Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity:
Which captures the kinetic energy in rivers or streams, without a large reservoir
and sometimes without the use of dams
• Small hydro Projects:
Projects are 10 megawatts or less and often have no artificial reservoirs.
• Micro hydro Projects:
They provide a few kilowatts to a few hundred kilowatts to isolated homes,
villages, or small industries.
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Hydropower types:
• Conduit hydroelectricity:
Projects utilize water which has already been diverted for use elsewhere; in a
municipal water system, for example.
• Pumped-storage hydroelectricity:
This technique stores water pumped uphill into reservoirs during periods of low
demand to be released for generation when demand is high or system generation
is low.
• Off-shore Hydropower:
It uses energy from tidal power generated from oceans, rivers, and human-made
canal systems to generating electricity
• Pressure buffering hydropower:
It uses natural sources (waves for example) for water pumping to turbines while
exceeding water is pumped uphill into reservoirs and releases when incoming
water flow isn't enough

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Calculating the amount of available power
P=ηρQgh
• P is power in watts
• η is the dimensionless efficiency of the turbine
• ρ is the density of water in kilograms per cubic metre
• Q is the flow in cubic metres per second
• g is the acceleration due to gravity
• h is the height difference between inlet and outlet in meters

Example:
To illustrate, power is calculated for a turbine that is 85% efficient, with water at
1000 kg/cubic meter (62.5 pounds/cubic foot) and a flow rate of 80 cubic-
meters/second (2800 cubic-feet/second), gravity of 9.81 meters per second
squared and with a net head of 145 m (480 ft).

Power (P)= 0.85 x 1000 x 80 x 9.81 x 145 = 97 MW

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Hydropower relies on the water cycle
Understanding the water cycle is important to understanding hydropower. The
water cycle has three steps:

• Solar energy heats water on the surface of rivers, lakes, and oceans, which causes
the water to evaporate.

• Water vapor condenses into clouds and falls as precipitation—rain and snow.

• Precipitation collects in streams and rivers, which empty into oceans and lakes,
where it evaporates and begins the cycle again.

The amount of precipitation that drains into rivers and streams in a geographic
area determines the amount of water available for producing hydropower.
Seasonal variations in precipitation and long-term changes in precipitation
patterns, such as droughts, have a big impact on hydropower production

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Hydropower relies on the water cycle

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How Hydropower Works
• Hydropower plants capture the energy of falling water to generate electricity. A
turbine converts the kinetic energy of falling water into mechanical energy. Then a
generator converts the mechanical energy from the turbine into electrical energy

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How Hydropower Works
• Parts of a Hydroelectric Plant:
Most conventional hydroelectric plants include four major components
• Dam:
Raises the water level of the river to create falling water. Also controls the flow of
water. The reservoir that is formed is, in effect, stored energy.
• Turbine:
The force of falling water pushing against the turbine's blades causes the turbine
to spin. The turbine converts the kinetic energy of falling water into mechanical
energy

• Generator:
Connected to the turbine by shafts and possibly gears so when the turbine spins it
causes the generator to spin also. Converts the mechanical energy from the
turbine into electric energy.
• Transmission lines.
Conduct electricity from the hydropower plant to homes and business
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How Hydropower Works

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Article 161 of the Constitution of Pakistan

• ‘The net profits earned by the Federal


Government, or any undertaking established
or administered by the Federal Government
from the bulk generation of power at a
hydro-electric station shall be paid to
the Province in which the hydro-electric
station is situated’.

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Background:
• Pakistan has been blessed with ample water resources and
with great potential of hydel energy, but could store only 13%
of the annual flow of its rivers. Pakistan inherited a very small
power base of
• only 60 MW capacity for its 31.5 million people. At the
time of creation of WAPDA in 1958, the country's total
hydropower capacity was enhanced to 119 MW. With the
signing of Indus Basin Water Treaty in1960, Pakistan was
entitled to use 142 MAF (Indus 93, Jhelum 23 and Chenab
26) of surface water. Subsequently, 240 MW Warsak,
1000 MW Mangla and 3478 MW Tarbela Hydropower
Projects. According to the report by Water and Power
Development Authority (WAPDA), Pakistan has the potential
of 100,000MW of hydro power with identified sites of
59,000MW.
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Background:

Pakistan only has 30% water storage capacity, which


is also depleting due to fast sedimentation in the
reservoirs. In contrast United States of America has
developed 497% storage capacity of the annual flow
of River Colorado; Egypt possesses 281% of River Nile
and India 35% on the Sutlej-Bias Basin. All these
statistics warrant construction of number of
reservoirs to enhance availability of water which
stands at 1070 cubic meters per capita and anything
below 1000 cubic meters tantamount to a crisis
situation. Pakistan is a water rich country, but,
unfortunately, Pakistan’s energy market investment
in hydel power generation has been caught up in
confusion and contradiction for many years, and no
significance project has been achieved so far. 12
Hydropower resources in Pakistan

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Hydropower Existing Projects in Pakistan

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Hydropower Projects under Construction

Energy
Capacity
Sr# Name of Project River Location Generation
(MW)
(GWh)

1. Khan Khwar Khan Khwar Besham – NWFP 72 275

2. Allai Khwar Allai Khwar Batgram – NWFP 121 450

3. Duber Khwar Duber Khwar Pattan – NWFP 130 590

4. Satpara Satpara Skardu – NWFP 16 105

Waziristan –
5. Gomal Zam Gomal 18 90
NWFP

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Hydropower Projects under Construction
6. Jinnah Indus Kalabagh – Punjab 96 688

7. Neelum Jhelum Neelum Muzaffarabad - AJK 969 5150

8. Kurram Tangi Kurram North Waziristan 83 383

9. Golen Gol Golen Gol Chitral 106 436

10. Diamer Basha Indus Chilas Northern Area 4500 16700

Total 6111 24867

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Hydropower Projects Ready for Construction

Capacity
Sr# Name of Project River Location
(MW)

1. Kala Bagh Indus Kala Bagh 3600

2. Munda Dam Swat Mohmand Agency 740

3. Akhori Indus Attock 600

Total 4940

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Hydropower Projects under Studies
Approx Project
Installed
Sr. Energy Construction
Project River Location Capacity Status/ Study Completion
No. (GWh) Cost
(MW)
(Million US$)

World Bank has been requested to fund for design &


Tarbela implementation of the Project.
1 Indus Tarbela 960 1600 750
4th Ext

Feasibility study completed. Detailed Design and


Tender Documents in progress/ Aug 2009. PPIB has
2 Kohala Jhelum Kohala 1100 4800 3032.493
issued LOI to China International Water and Electric
Power Company (CWE) on 15.01.2009
Feasibility study completed. RFP issued to pre-
3 Dasu Indus Dasu 4320 21300 8486.295 qualified Firms for Detailed Design and Tender
Documents for submission by 08.09.2009.
Detailed Design and Tender Documents in progress/
4 Bunji Indus Gilgit 7100 24088 12142.118
Aug. 2010
Feasibility study completed. Evaluation of Technical
5 Phandar Ghizar Gilgit 80 350 70 Proposal by pre-qualified Firms for Detailed Design
and Tender Documents in progress.
Lower
Chor
6 Palas Pattan 621 2448 667 Feasibility study in progress./ Nov. 2009
Nullah
Valley
Lower Spat
7 Patan 567 2189 614 Feasibility study in progress./ Oct. 2009
Spat Gah Gah

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Hydropower Projects under Studies
Feasibility study completed. RFP is being issued to pre-qualified
8 Basho Basho Skardu 28 135 49.122
Firms for Detailed Design and Tender Documents.

Feasibility study completed. Evaluation of Technical Proposal by


Keyal Keyal
9 Patan 122 426 180 pre-qualified Firms for Detailed Design and Tender Documents
Khwar Khwar
is under process for approval.

Feasibility study completed. PC-I for Detailed Design, Tender


Darosh-
10 Lawi Shishi 70 303 120 Documents and project construction is under process for
Chitral
approval.

Feasibility study completed. EOI for pre-qualification of


Harpo
11 Harpo Skardu 33 187 45.403 Consultants for Detailed Design & Tender Documents being
Lungma
evaluated.

PC-II for Feasibility study submitted to MOW&P for approval by


12 Thakot Indus Thakot 2800 14095 6000
the Planning Commission.

PC-II for Feasibility study submitted to MOW&P for approval by


13 Patan Indus Patan 2800 15230 6000
the Planning Commission.

Desk study and field reconnaissance initiated by Hydro Planning


14 Yulbo Indus Skardu 3000 12500 6000
Organization, WAPDA

TOTAL 23601 99651

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Hydropower potential in provinces of Pakistan
• HYDROPOWER POTENTAIL IN KHYBER PUKHTOON KHWA

• About 142 project sites with a total capacity of 24736 MW


were identified
• Out of these, 19 projects are in operation, 27 sites are
under implementation in the public sector, whereas10
sites are under implementation in the private sector.
• Projects in operation with the total capacity of 3849 MW.
• Project which are under implementation in public sector
mainly by WAPDA/SHYDO are with the total capacity of
9482MW. Details of the project sunder implementation in
private sector with total capacity of 2398 MW , raw project
sites are with the total capacity of 8930 MW, while the
solicited sites with total capacity of 77MW.

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HYDROPOWER POTENTAIL IN PUNJAB
• At different canals and barrages, about 330 potential canal sites with a
total capacity of 7291 MW were identified.

• Out of these, 8 projects with capacity of 1699 MW are in operation, one


site is under implementation in the public sector by WAPDA, whereas 5
projects with a capacity of 24 MW on canal falls are under construction in
Public sector by Govt. of Punjab.

• The projects in operation and under implementation in the public sector


are with the total capacity of 1699 MW and 720 MW respectively, while
details of projects being implemented in the Private Sector with the total
capacity of 1028 MW. raw project sites with the total capacity of about
238 MW. Solicited sites with the total capacity of 3606 MW.

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HYDROPOWER RESOURCES IN AZAD
JAMMU & KASHMIR
• Altogether about 68 hydropower sites with a total potential of 6450 MW
have been identified.

• Out of these 68 hydropower sites, 9 projects with a capacity of 1039 MW


are in operation, 23 sites are under implementation. Mainly, these are
run-of-river sites, having small daily storage for peak hours.

• Projects in operation with the total capacity of 1039 MW, while details of
the projects which are under implementation with the total capacity of
1231MW and 3264 MW respectively; while raw project sites with the total
capacity of 915 MW, One project at Ban Nalla with a capacity of 1 MW is a
solicited site.

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HYDROPOWER RESOURCES IN GILGIT-BALTISTAN
• About 278 projects sites with a total capacity of 21125 MW were
identified.

• Out of these, 98 projects are in operation, 31 projects are beingprocessed


/implemented .

• Except Diamer Basha and Skardu dam, most of these sites are run-of-river.

• Projects in operation are with the total capacity of 133 MW while projects
under implementation in the public and private sector with total capacity
of 11876 MW and 40 MW respectively, raw site projects are with total
capacity of 8542 MW, while solicited sites are with total capacity of 534
MW.

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HYDRO POWER RESOURCES IN SINDH

• Altogether, eighteen potential sites of an estimated total capacity of 193


MW with medium and low head at different canals have been identified.
raw sites of projects are with the total capacity of 126 MW while solicited
projects are with total capacity of 67 MW.

• HYDROPOWER POWER PROJECT IN BALUCHISTAN

• The National Water Resources Development Programme for Baluchistan


included 8 irrigation projects, but none of them have the required head to
generate electricity. Presently, no hydropower projects are in operation or
under implementation in Baluchistan Province either in the public or
private sector.

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BARRIERS IN THE HYDRO DEVELOPMENT

• Limited financial resources both for project studies and implementation.

• Low Political will and lukewarm priority

• Long term investment returns starts coming after long time.

• Long investigations and gestation period of hydropower projects.

• Remote location of promising potential sites and dilapidated


infrastructure.

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BARRIERS IN THE HYDRO DEVELOPMENT

• Lack of trained manpower.

• Non availability of local manufacturing facility for electro-mechanical


equipments.

• Lack of experienced local construction companies for medium to large size


HPPs.

• Less response from private investors in implementing hydropower


projects.

• Security situation.

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Monetary value of Hydro Energy
in comparison to other Energy Sources
Sr. No. Type of Energy Cost in Per Kilowatt Hour (Rs)

1 Hydro Electric Power 1.25

2 Coal-fired Power 12.5

3 Furnace Oil-based electricity 16

4 Wind Power 11

5 Solar Electricity 19.33

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