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• Forced vibrations are vibrations where an external excitation in form of (force or displacement)

is continuously applied to the system.

• Examples are vibrations due to rotating unbalance of machines, earthquake, an automobile or an

aircraft traveling on an uneven road/runway, vibration testing & experiments & vibration

measurements (sensor applications).

• The governing DE will be linear, second order & non homogenous whose general solution is

composed of two parts (1) homogenous solution (which will decay with time and hence is

transient) (2) particular solution which will be steady in time and is due to the applied excitation.

•In forced vibration cases we therefore seek the particular solution only.

• The external excitation can be harmonic,

non harmonic but periodic or random in time.

• If the applied excitation is harmonic the

response will essentially be harmonic. Homogenous sol (transient decay)

Accelerometer

accelerometer (forced vibrations)

Forging process (forced vibrations)

General solution (sum)

Undamped Harmonic Forced Vibration Response

Since the excitation is harmonic the particular sol will also be

harmonic with the same frequency.

ẋp = -Xωsinωt, ẍp = -Xω2cosωt & x = Xcosωt

Put ẍ & x in (1) and solve for X

mẍ + kx = F(t) (F(t) = Fo cosωt) where Fo/k = δst = static deflection under Fo.

ω/ωn = r = frequency ratio.

(1)

Homogenous DE will be:

mẍ + kx = 0

General solution is:

The general solution

Let the initial conditions be: x(t=0) = xo & ẋ(t=0) = ẋo

we get:

&

Where, Also,

• X/δst = Magnification Factor

• ω/ωn = r = Frequency Ratio

Case No. 1 (0 < r < 1)

• If r is greater than 0 but less than 1 the denominator of X/δst = 1/(1-r2) will be +ve or

in other words X/δst will be +ve.

• The response x(t) = Xcosωt will be exactly in phase with the applied excitation F(t).

0< r <1

excitation and the response will reach their

maximum & minimum values together in time.

Case No. 2 (r > 1)

• When r is greater than 1 the denominator of X/δst = 1/(1-r2) will become -ve or in

other words X/δst will be -ve.

• The response is now given by x(t) = - Xcosωt.

• The response x(t) is now 180o out of phase with the excitation F(t).

r ∞ X 0.

• Therefore, response to harmonic

excitations of very high frequency is

close to zero.

r>1

Good in terms of vibration.

• Note 180o out of phase means that when F(t) will be +ve X will be

–ve and vice versa. However both quantities will still reach their

maximum and minimum at same time

Case No. 3 (r = 1)

• When r is equal to 1 this means excitation frequency is exactly equal to system’s natural

frequency (i.e. Resonance).

• If resonance will occur the amplitude X will become infinite. (to be avoided)

r =1 (previously)

𝐹𝑜 𝑥ሶ 𝐹𝑜

𝑥 𝑡 = 𝑥𝑜 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜔𝑛 𝑡 − cosωnt + 𝜔𝑜 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜔𝑛 𝑡 + 𝑐𝑜𝑠ω𝑡

𝑘−𝑚𝜔2 𝑛 𝑘−𝑚𝜔2

• In order to remove the indefinite form of x(t) we can estimate the form of the last term as a

limit ω ωn.

• Using L’ Hospital rule we can write as follows.

Plot of

It can be seen that the response increases

linearly with time.

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