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Management tenth edition

Stephen P. Robbins Mary Coulter

Chapter
Foundations of
8 Planning

7–1
Learning Outcomes
Follow this Learning Outline as you read and
study this chapter.
1 The What And Why Of Planning
• Define planning.
• Describe the purposes of planning.
• Explain what studies have shown about the
relationship between planning and performance.
2 Goals And Plans
• Define goals and plans.
• Describe the types of goals organizations might have.
• Describe each of the different types of plans.
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Learning Outcomes
3 Setting Goals and Developing Plans
• Discuss how traditional goal setting and MBO work.
• Describe well-written goals and explain how to set
them.
• Discuss the contingency factors that affect planning.
• Describe the approaches to planning.
4 Contemporary Issues in Planning
• Explain the criticisms of planning.
• Describe how managers can effectively plan in
today’s dynamic environment.
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What Is Planning?
• Planning
A primary managerial activity that involves:
 Defining the organization’s goals
 Establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals
 Developing plans for organizational work activities

Formal planning
 Specific goals covering a specific time period
 Written and shared with organizational members

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Why Do Managers Plan?
• Purposes of Planning
 Provides direction
 Reduces uncertainty
 Minimizes waste and redundancy (abundance)
 Sets the standards for controlling

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Planning and Performance
• The Relationship Between Planning and
Performance
 Formal planning is associated with:
 Higher profits and returns on assets.
 Positive financial results.
 The quality of planning and implementation affect
performance more than the extent of planning.
 The external environment can reduce the impact of
planning on performance.
 Formal planning must be used for several years
before planning begins to affect performance.

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How Do Managers Plan?
• Elements of Planning

Goals (also Objectives)


 Desiredoutcomes for individuals, groups, or entire
organizations
 Provide direction and evaluation performance criteria
Plans
 Documents that outline how goals are to be
accomplished
 Describe how resources are to be allocated and
establish activity schedules
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Types of Goals
• Financial Goals
 Are related to the expected internal financial performance
of the organization.

• Strategic Goals
 Are related to the performance of the firm relative to
factors in its external environment (e.g., competitors).

• Stated Goals versus Real Goals


 Broadly-worded official statements of the organization
(intended for public consumption) that may be
irrelevant to its real goals (what actually goes on in the
organization).
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Exhibit 7–1 Types of Plans

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Types of Plans (Breadth)
Strategic Plans
 Apply to the entire organization.
 Establish the organization’s overall goals.
 Seek to position the organization in terms of its environment.
 Cover extended periods of time.
Operational Plans
 Specify the details of how the overall goals are to be
achieved.
 Cover a short time period.
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The difference between strategic plans
and operational plans
Strategic Plan Operational Plan
A general guide for the management of A specific plan for the use of the
the organization organization's resources in pursuit of the
strategic plan.
Suggests strategies to be employed in Details specific activities and events to
pursuit of the organization's goals be undertaken to implement strategies
Is a plan for the pursuit of the Is a plan for the day-to-day management
organization's mission in the longer term of the organization (one year time frame)
(3 - 5 years)
A strategic plan enables management to An operational plan should not be
formulate an operational plan. formulated without reference to a
strategic plan
The strategic plan, once formulated, Operational plans may differ from year to
tends not to be significantly changed year significantly
every year
The development of the strategic plan is The operational plan is produced by the
a responsibility shared and involves chief executive and staff of the 7–11
different categories of stakeholders. organization.
Types of Plans (Time Frame)
• Long-Term Plans
 Plans with time frames extending beyond three years
• Short-Term Plans
 Plans with time frames of one year or less
Note:
 Any time period in between would be an intermediate
plan.
 Although these time classifications are fairly common,
an organization can use any planning time frame it
wants.
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Types of Plans (Specificity)
• Specific Plans
Plans that are clearly defined and leave no room for
interpretation
• Directional Plans
Flexible plans that set out general guidelines and
provide focus, yet allow discretion in implementation

Types of Plans (frequency of use)


• Single-Use Plan
 A one-time plan specifically designed to meet the need
of a unique situation.
• Standing Plans
 Ongoing plans that provide guidance for activities
performed repeatedly. 7–13
Setting Goals and Developing Plans
The first step to do any business is to set your goals
Approaches to Setting Goals
Everything organizational members are doing should be
oriented toward achieving goals.
These goals can be set either through a traditional process or
by using management by objectives.
• Traditional Goal Setting
 Broad goals are set at the top of the organization.
 Goals are then broken into sub-goals for each organizational
level.
 Assumes that top management knows best because they can see
the “big picture.”
 Goals are intended to direct, guide, and constrain from above.
 Goals lose clarity and focus as lower-level managers attempt to
interpret and define the goals for their areas of responsibility. 7–14
Exhibit 7–2 The Downside of Traditional Goal Setting

 Another problem with traditional goal setting is that when top managers
define the organization’s goals in broad terms—such as achieving
“sufficient” profits or increasing “market leadership”—these ambiguous
goals have to be made more specific as they flow down.
 Managers at each level define the goals and apply their own interpretations
and biases as they make them more specific.
 However, what often happens is that clarity is lost as the goals make their
way down from the top of the organization to lower levels. 7–15
Maintaining the Hierarchy of Clearly Defined Goals
(Means–Ends Chain)
When the hierarchy of organizational goals is clearly defined
it forms an integrated network of goals, or a means-ends
chain.
The goals achieved at lower levels become the means to
reach the goals (ends) at the next level.
And the accomplishment of goals at that level becomes the
means to achieve the goals (ends) at the next level and on
up through the different organizational levels. That’s how
traditional goal setting is supposed to work.
Note: Means–Ends Chain concept refers to an integrated network
of goals that results from establishing a clearly-defined hierarchy
of organizational goals. Achievement of lower-level goals is the
means by which to reach higher-level goals (ends). 7–16
• Management By Objectives (MBO)
 Specific performance goals are jointly determined by
employees and managers.
 Progress toward accomplishing goals is periodically
reviewed.
 Rewards are allocated on the basis of progress towards
the goals.
 Key elements of MBO:
 Goal specificity, participative decision making, an explicit
performance/evaluation period, feedback

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Exhibit 7–3 Steps in a Typical MBO Program
1. The organization’s overall objectives and strategies are formulated.
2. Major objectives are allocated among divisional and departmental
units.
3. Unit managers collaboratively set specific objectives for their units
with their managers.
4. Specific objectives are collaboratively set with all department
members.
5. Action plans, defining how objectives are to be achieved, are
specified and agreed upon by managers and employees.
6. The action plans are implemented.
7. Progress toward objectives is periodically reviewed, and feedback
is provided.
8. Successful achievement of objectives is reinforced by
performance-based rewards.
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Does MBO Work?
• Reason for MBO Success
 Top management commitment and involvement
• Potential Problems with MBO Programs
 Not as effective in dynamic environments that require
constant resetting of goals.
 Overemphasis on individual accomplishment may
create problems with teamwork.
 Allowing the MBO program to become an annual
paperwork shuffle.
Note: Paper-shuffling refers to the time-consuming
circulation of papers and documents without contributing
much more to the system itself. 7–19
Exhibit 7–4 Well-Written Goals

• Written in terms of • Challenging yet attainable


outcomes, not actions  Low goals do not motivate.
 Focuses on the ends, not  High goals motivate if they
the means. can be achieved.
• Measurable and • Written down
quantifiable  Focuses, defines, and
 Specifically defines how the makes goals visible.
outcome is to be measured • Communicated to all
and how much is expected. necessary organizational
• Clear as to time frame members
 How long before measuring  Puts everybody “on the
accomplishment. same page.”

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Steps in Goal Setting
1. Review the organization’s mission statement.
Do goals reflect the mission?
2. Evaluate available resources.
Are resources sufficient to accomplish the mission?
3. Determine goals individually or with others.
Are goals specific, measurable, and timely?
4. Write down the goals and communicate them.
Is everybody on the same page?
5. Review results and whether goals are being met.
What changes are needed in mission, resources, or goals?

Facebook's mission is “To give people the power to share and make the
world more open and connected”
Kiva's mission is “To connect people through lending to alleviate
poverty”
Developing Plans
• Contingency Factors in a Manager’s Planning
 Manager’s level in the organization
 Strategic plans at higher levels
 Operational plans at lower levels
 Degree of environmental uncertainty
 Stable environment: specific plans
 Dynamic environment: specific but flexible plans
 Length of future commitments
 Commitment Concept: current plans affecting future commitments
must be sufficiently long-term to meet those commitments.
What happened at AT&T with the iPhone is a good example of why it’s important to
understand the commitment concept. When it secured exclusive rights to support the iPhone
on its wireless network in June 2007, both Apple and AT&T vastly underestimated the
phone’s popularity—some 42.4 million have been sold.
AT&T’s Operations president John Stankey said, “We missed on our usage estimates.” As
the company discovered, the bandwidth-hungry super-phone has created serious challenges.
Exhibit 7–5 Planning in the Hierarchy of Organizations

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Approaches to Planning
A. Establishing a formal planning department
 A group of planning specialists who help managers write
organizational plans.
Under this approach, plans developed by top-level managers flow down
through organizational levels like the traditional approach to goal-
setting.
 However, planning is a function of management; it should
never become the sole responsibility of planners.
B. Involving organizational members in the process
 Plans are developed by members of organizational units
at various levels and then coordinated with other units
across the organization.
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Contemporary Issues in Planning

• Criticisms of Planning
 Planning may create rigidity.
 Plans cannot be developed for dynamic environments.
 Formal plans cannot replace intuition and creativity.
 Planning focuses managers’ attention on today’s
competition not tomorrow’s survival.
 Formal planning reinforces today’s success, which
may lead to tomorrow’s failure.
 Just planning isn’t enough.
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Contemporary Issues in Planning (cont’d)

• Effective Planning in Dynamic Environments


 Develop plans that are specific but flexible.
 Understand that planning is an ongoing process.
 Change plans when conditions warrant.
 Persistence in planning eventually pays off.
 Flatten the organizational hierarchy to foster the
development of planning skills at all organizational
levels.

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Terms to Know
• planning • directional plans
• goals • single-use plan
• plans • standing plans
• stated goals • traditional goal setting
• real goals • means-ends chain
• framing • management by
• strategic plans objectives (MBO)
• operational plans • mission
• long-term plans • commitment concept
• short-term plans • formal planning
• specific plans department

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