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Global environmental concerns: United Nations

Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCC), Kyoto Protocol, Conference of Parties
(COP), Clean Development Mechanism (CDM),
Prototype Carbon fund (PCF), Sustainable
Global Environmental Issues

• Ozone layer depletion

• Land degradation
• Air and water pollution
• Sea-level rise
• Loss of biodiversity
Ozone Layer depletion
 Ozone layer exist in
stratosphere 10-50 Km from
earth surface
 Ozone layer is an efficient
filter for UV(B) radiation
 Ozone layer though
unstable had being in
equilibrium (formation and
destruction) for million of
 Ozone layer is now being
increasingly disturbed by
man-made Chlorine,
bromine and nitrous oxide
Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion
 Effects on Human and Animal Health
 Increased penetration of solar UV-B radiation is likely to have
profound impact on human health with potential risks of eye
diseases, skin cancer and infectious diseases.

 Effects on Terrestrial Plants

 In forests and grasslands increased radiation is likely to result
in changes in species composition thus altering the bio-
diversity in different ecosystems.

 Effects on Aquatic Ecosystems

 High levels of exposure in tropics and subtropics may affect
the distribution of phytoplanktons which form the foundation of
aquatic food webs.
 Can cause damage to early development stages of fish,
shrimp, crab, amphibians and other animals, the most severe
effects being decreased reproductive capacity and impaired
larval development
Global Warming
 Global temperatures have risen by about
0.6oC over 20th century and predicted to rise
by about 5.8oc by 2100
 CO2 generated by fossil fuel combustion,
methane and nitrous oxide emissions through
agricultural activities are main culprits
 Sea level is expected to rise upto 88 cm by
2100 causing flooding in coastal areas
 Displacement of people, changes incropping
pattern , changes in precipitation, reduction
in agricultural yield and threat of food
shortage looms large
United Nations Framework Convention
on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

 International response to climatic change

 Provides framework for cutting/controlling
greenhouse gas emissions
 Voluntary pledge to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions to 1990 levels by year 2000
 Ratified nations convene in form of
Conference Of Parties or COP
Conference Of Parties (COP)
 Supreme body of climatic change
 Purpose of COP is to periodically
examine the obligations of the Parties
and the institutional arrangements
under the Convention
 Exchange of information
 Support for developing countries
Important COPs
 COP-1 at Berlin envisioned a goal of negotiating a
protocol to establish legally binding reduction in
 COP-3 adopts Kyoto protocol
 COP-4 adopts 2 year plan to finalise Kyoto protocol
outstanding detail i.e. compliance, policy issues and
measures and transfer pf technology to developing
 COP-5 aim was to strengthen guidelines for
measuring greenhouse emissions etc.
 COP-6 makes progress in outlining package of
financial support and technology transfer to
developing countries in contributing to global action
on climatic change
 COP-7 outlines basics of Clean Development
Global Climate Change Treaty: The Kyoto Protocol

• Kyoto protocol on climatic change (COP-1)

• Covers 6 major greenhouse gases
 Carbon dioxide (CO2)
 Methane (CH4)
 Nitrous oxide (N2O)
 Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
 Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
 Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)
• Protocol states that developed countries are
committed individually or jointly to ensure that
anthropogenic carbon dioxide equivalent emissions of
greenhouse do not exceed amount assigned to each
• 92% reduction to most European countries and USA
Emission Reduction Targets under the Kyoto Protocol
Percapita CO2 emissions for 15 countries with
highest industrial emissions, 1995
India’s Contribution to Greenhouse
gas emissions
 6th largest contributor of CO2 emissions
behind China
 India’s per capita CO2 of 0.93t per annum is
well below the world average of 3.87t per
 Energy sector is the largest contributor of
greenhouse gas emissions (about 55%)
 Agriculture sector is next contributing to
almost 34%
Clean Development of
Mechanism (CDM)
 The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM),
provided for under Article 12 of the Kyoto
Protocol, enables developing countries to
participate in joint greenhouse gas (GHG)
mitigation projects.
 Enables countries to meet reduction targets
in flexible and cost-effective manner
 Allows for public and private sector
participation in greenhouse emission
mitigation projects in developing countries in
return for carbon credits
Projects Qualifying for fast track
CDM approval

 Renewable energy projects with output

capacity up to 15 MW
 Energy efficiency improvement projects which
reduce energy consumption on the supply
and/or demand side by up to 15 GWh
 Other project activities that both reduce
emissions by sources and directly emit less
than 15 kilotons CO2 equivalent annually
Indian Initiatives on CDM

 Holding of workshops, initiation of various

studies, meetings with stakeholders
 Under CDM projects, energy efficient
hydrocarbon refrigerators, modernization of
small scale foundry units and renovation,
modernization of thermal power plants etc.
are being taken up
CDM- Case Example
In a power plant rehabilitation and modernization programme by
replacing plant equipment which are prone to wear and tear over a
period of time, such as boilers and auxiliaries, turbine blades, HP
governor valves and station auxiliaries which include material handling
equipment, water treatment, pulverisers, ash handling plant, ESP etc.
resulted in CO2 emission reduction from 1.20 kg/kWh to 1.11 kg/kWh.
The details are shown in the Table

Parameters Before the programme After the programme

Gross heat rate (kcal/Kwh) 2700 2500

Net efficiency (%) 28 30

Specific coal consumption 0.77 0.71

Total CO2 emissions (tones/year) 1435336 1329015

CO2 emissions (kg/ kWh) 1.20 1.11

Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF)

 Fund established by World Bank

 Investment in greenhouse gas emission
reduction projects through contributions
made by companies and governments
 PCF will pilot emission reductions with
framework of Joint Implementation and
Sustainable Development
The World Commission on Environment and
Development (the Brundtland Commission) defined
sustainable development as "development that meets the
needs of the present without compromising the ability of
future generations to meet their own needs."
Promoting Equity

International Improving
obligations Quality of Life
and Well-being

health of
Sustaining natural
people and