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COILS

COILS
COILS
COILS
ARE AIR TO LIQUID, INDIRECT CONTACT HEAT
EXCHANGERS, THAT FACILITATES TRANSFER OF
SPACE COOLING / HEATING LOAD TO COOLING/
HEATING MEDIUM

 AIR TO CHILLED WATER


 AIR TO HOT WATER / STEAM
 AIR TO REFRIGERANT LIQUID
 AIR TO AMBIENT TEMP. WATER
 AIR TO BRINE ( GLYCOLS )

COILS
COILS
 COILS CARRYING WATER OR BRINE
SOLUTIONS ARE CALLED CHILLED WATER
COILS.

 COILS CARRYING VOLATILE REFERIGANTS


ARE REFFERED TO AS DX-COILS.

COILS
WHAT ARE THE APPLICATIONS ?
SENSIBLE COOLING
 PRE COOLING WITH WELL OR RELATIVELY, LOW
TEMPERATURE WATER TO REDUCE COOLING LOAD
ON COIL.
 SENSIBLE COOLING AFTER AIR DRYING i.e.
CHEMICAL MOISTURE - ABSORPTION PROCESS.
 AIR CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS - COOLING &
DEHUMIDIFICATION - (SENSIBLE & LATENT)
 CHILLED WATER (450 / 440F)
 SENSIBLE HEATING OF AIR - WITH HOT WATER
OR WITH STEAM.

COILS
 AIR CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS - COOLING &
DEHUMIDIFICATION - (SENSIBLE & LATENT)
REFRIGERANT LIQUID. - (DIRECT EXPANSION)

 LOW TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS - COLD


STORAGE / DEEP FREEZER - LOW TEMPERATURE
BRINES / REFRIGERANT.

COILS
MECHANISM OF HEAT TRANSFER

DIRECT EXPANSION - REFRIGERANT -


INSIDE TUBES, AIR OVER TUBES
 ACCOMPLISHES MOST OF ITS HEAT
ABSORPTION BY BOILING WITHIN TUBES -
PHASE CHANGE.
 SINCE LOW TEMP. / PRESSURE LIQUID
REFRIGERANT EVAPORATES IN TO GAS, IT IS A
LATENT HEAT TRANSFER.
 ANY LATENT HEAT TRANSFER DOES NOT
ACCOMPANY ANY CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE.

COILS
 THE TEMPERATURE AT WHICH
REFERIGERANT BOILS IS PRESSURE
DEPENDENT. SINCE THERE IS A PRESSURE
DROP, AS REFERIGERANT FLOWS THROUGH
A TUBE, BOILING TEMPERATURE DROPS.

 AFTER LIQUID REFERIGERANT HAS


COMPELETY EVAPORATED, THERE IS SOME
SENSIBLE HEAT ADDITION CALLED SUPER
HEAT.

COILS
COILS
CHILLED WATER COIL
 HEAT EXCHANGE ACROSS TUBES AND FINS IS
DEPENDENT ON THE TEMPERATURE RISE OF THE
WATER OR BRINE SOLUTION.
 NO CHANGE OF STATE OCCURS ONLY SENSIBLE HEAT
EXCHANGE RESULTS.
 THUS THE HEAT TRANSFER PRIMARILY DEPENDS ON
SPECIFIC HEAT OF THE FLUID FLOWING WITHIN
TUBES.
 WATER/BRINE TEMPERATURE KEEPS CHANGING
BETWEEN INLET TO OUTLET.

WATER - INSIDE TUBES


AIR - OVER TUBES & FINS

COILS
Q = MASS FLOW RATE x SP. HEAT x TEMPERATURE RISE

12000 BTU/HR = GALLONS/MINUTE x 8.33 x 60 x


TEMP. RISE, 0F
= GPM x 500 x TEMP RISE , 0F
FOR TEMP. RISE, 100F (SAY 450/ 550F) = 2.4 GPM/TR.
80F (SAY 450/ 530F) = 3.0 GPM/TR.

HEAT EXCHANGE, Q=
OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT x AREA x LOG
MEAN TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE.

COILS
CHW
OUT 76°F

AIR 56°F
54°F
AIR
WATER 44°F
CHW
IN
COUNTER FLOW

76°F
AIR
56°F
AIR
REFRIGERANT
40°F
REF PHASE
GAS REF CHANGE
INLET
COUNTER FLOW

COILS
HW WATER
OUT 140°F

120°F

AIR 95°F AIR

HW 68°F
INLET
COUNTER FLOW

STEAM

STEAM
IN
PHASE
CHANGE
COND-
ENSATE PARALLEL FLOW

COILS
THE TRANSFER OF HEAT FROM AIR FLOWING OVER A
COIL (TUBE SURFACE TO THE FLUID WATER OR
REFRIGERANT) FLOWING IN THE PIPE IS IMPEDED BY
THREE RESISTANCES.

 INABILITY OF AIR TO CONTACT METAL OUTSIDE


SURFACE - AIR FILM RESISTANCE.
 THE RESISTANCE TO THE CONDUCTION OF HEAT
THROUGH THE TUBE WALL.
 INABILITY OF ALL THE FLUID TO CONTACT THE INNER
PIPE WALL- WATER / REFRIGERANT SIDE
RESISTANCE.
 SINCE AIR FILM RESISTANCE IS MUCH HIGHER, FINS
ARE PROVIDED ON THE AIR SIDE TO IMPROVE THE
HEAT TRANSFER

COILS
SPACE LOAD
AIR AIR

REFRIGERANT COOLANT WATER/BRINE


(SECONDARY REF)
DIRECT EXPANSION (DX)

PRIMARY
REFRIGERANT
COOLANT
IN CHILLER

CHILLED WATER SYSTEM

COILS
 BECAUSE OF ONE ADDITIONAL HEAT TRANSFER
STEP, THEORETICALLY UNDER EQUAL
OPERATING PARAMETERS, DX - SYSTEM IS
MORE EFFICIENT THAN CHILLED WATER
SYSTEM.

 SENSIBLE HEAT TRANSFER : MASS x SP. HEAT x


TEMP.DIFF.

 LATENT HEAT TRANSFER : MASS x LATANT


HEAT.
1 KG/HR x 1 x 10C : 1 KCAL / HR.
1 KG/HR x 540 KCAL/KG : 540 KCAL / HR.

COILS
WHAT SHOULD BE CHILLED WATER OF
REFRIGERANT TEMPERATURE ?
CLASSIFICATION AS PER ASHRAE

• LOW TEMPERATURE HEATING SYSTEM UPTO 250 0F


• CHILLED WATER SYSTEM 40 0 F TO 45 0 F SUPPLY
• DUAL TEMPERATURE WATER SYSTEM
HOT OR CHILLED WATER THRU COMMON PIPING
COOLING = 400F TO 450F SUPPLY
HEATING = 1000F TO 1500F SUPPLY
TEMPERATURE LIMITS ARE BASED ON PERFORMANCE

COILS
COOLING
• FOR A SPACE TEMP. OF 750F & 50 % RH, DEW POINT
TEMPERATURE IS 550F. RETURN WATER TEMP. SHOULD
BE BELOW 550F.

• LOWEST PRACTICAL TEMPERATURE OF WATER (SAFE


FROM FREEZING) IS 400F.
CHILLED WATER RANGE IS 400F TO 550F.

SIMILARLY REFRIGERANT TEMPERATURE


SHOULD BE BETWEEN 400F TO 450F FOR
COIL AIR LEAVING OF 540F.

COILS
APPLICATIONS & LIMITATIONS
 IN DX COILS, REFRIGERANT IS INSIDE TUBES.
LARGER THE CAPACITY, BIGGER THE COIL. MORE
THE DISTANCE BETWEEN CONDENSING UNIT AND
COIL, MORE IS THE REFRIGERANT CHARGE.
 DX SYSTEMS ARE MOST FREQUENTLY AND EASILY
APPLIED WITH ONE AIR HANDLING UNIT WITH
ONE COMPRESSION SYSTEM. THIS TENDS TO LIMIT
THE MAXIMUM REFRIGERANT CAPACITY TO
ABOUT 100 TR.
 DX SYSTEM ARE CLOSE COUPLED SYSTEM, ie. AIR
HANDLING STATION AND CONDENSING UNITS ARE
LOCATED NEAR BY

COILS
COILS
 BY CONTRAST, CHILLED WATER SYSTEM TYPICALLY
FEED SEVERAL CHILLED WATER COILS LOCATED AT
FAR OFF LOCATIONS FROM A SINGLE CHILLER.
MAXIMUM CAPACITY OF CENTRAL CHILLED WATER
SYSTEM IS ALMOST UNLIMITED.

 FOR BRINE COILS (i.e. ETHYLENE GLYCOL ) THE COIL


CAPACITY DERATE & WATER PRESSURE DROP
INCREASES. PRACTICALLY CHILLED WATER SHOULD
NOT BE USED BELOW 40OF TO PREVENT FREEZING.
FOR LOW TEMPERATURE APPLICATION, BRINE
SOLUTION IS ADDED TO DEPRESS THE FREEZING
POINT.

COILS
PRIME SURFACE
COILS

EXTENDED SURFACE COILS

PRIME SURFACE :- ARE CONSTRUCTED OF BARE


TUBES, USED PRIMARILY FOR
HEAT TRANSFER WHERE THE
SOLUTION MAY DEPOSIT SOLIDS
ON OUTSIDE OF COIL e.g..
FREEZING OF ICE. CLEANING
BENEFIT OF A SMOOTH SURFACE
IS OBVIOUS.

COILS
EXTENDED SURFACE :- USED PRIMARILY IN AIR
COOLING
APPLICATIONS.
PRIMARY SURFACE AREA
IS OF TUBES.
SECONDARY SURFACE IS
PROVIDED BY FINS,
MECHANICALLY BONDED
IN EFFECT PROVIDE SIGNIFICANT
TO TUBES. HIGHER HEAT

EXCHANGE PER UNIT AREA OF COIL EXPOSED


TO AIR, THUS MAKING THE COIL COMPACT

COILS
CONSTRUCTION
 COIL CONSISTS OF TUBES AND EXTERNAL FINS
ARRANGED IN ROWS ALONG, THE AIR FLOW TO
PROVIDE GREATER SURFACE AREA.
 WATER / REFRIGERANT FLOWS INSIDE TUBES, WHILE
AIR FLOWS OVER EXTERNAL SURFACE.
 TO MAINTAIN HIGH RATE OF HEAT TRANSFER, AIR
AND WATER FOLLOW A COUNTER FLOW ARRANGEMENT
ie. COLDEST AIR MEETS COLDEST WATER AND
WARMEST AIR MEETS WARMEST WATER.
 STRUCTURAL FRAME WORK END PLATE : GALVANISED
STEEL SHEET.
 HEADER IS OF COPPER OR GI

COILS
A) TUBES MATERIAL
: MOSTLY COPPER
: IN SOME APPLICATIONS, (PETROCHEMICALS ETC)
ALUMINIUM TUBES ARE USED, AS AMMONIA
REACTS WITH COPPER
B) TUBE DIAMETER
: 3/8” OD, 1/2” OD, 5/8” OD

1” TO 1.5”

C) PITCH 0.75” TO 1.25”


: LONGITUDINAL, TRANSVERSE - 25 TO 40 mm
D) FINS ARE ALUMINIUM PLATE CORRUGATED / RIPPLED
FINS PROVIDE HIGH HEAT TRANSFER.

COILS
MOST COMMON
COPPER TUBE - ( ½” OD, 27 G THICKNESS – BSL )
WITH ALUMINIUM FINS - 0.16 MM THICK
TO ARREST DIELECTRIC CORROSSION, ONE CAN HAVE
COPPER TUBES WITH COPPER FINS. IT IS VERY
EXPENSIVE AND SELDOM USED.

ROWS DEEP:- CAN BE 2,4,6,8

FIN SPACING:- CAN BE 8,10,12 FINS PER INCH


 HIGHER THE FINS, BETTER THE HEAT TRANSFER.
HOWEVER, AIR PRESSURE DROP IS ALSO HIGH.
 LESSER FPI SHOULD BE USED FOR LOW TEMP JOBS. Etc
BECAUSE OF PROBLEMS OF FROST ACCUMULATION, OR
POSSIBILITY OF LINT CHOKING.

COILS
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COIL NOMENCLATURE
 FACE AREA, FACE VELOCITY.

 FINNED LENGTH

 FINNED HEIGHT

 SUPPLY / RETURN HEADER

 DEPTH – ROW DEEP

 FIN SPACING, AIR PRESSURE DROP

 WATER CIRCUITS, WATER VELOCITY, PRESSURE DROP

 HAND OF CONNECTION

HOC IS DETERMINED FROM AIR ENTERING SIDE

COILS
FINNED
HEIGHT
D
EP
TH

COILS
PERFORMANCE
 IDEALLY, WATER SIDE CAPACITY SHOULD BE EQUAL
TO AIR SIDE CAPACITY

Q = U. A. LOG MEAN TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE.


U = DEPENDS ON GEOMETRY, FIN SPACING/TYPE, WATER
CIRCUIT/VELOCITY, AIR VELOCITY OVER COIL,

U INCREASES WITH INCREASE IN WATER VELOCITY &


AIR FACE VELOCITY.

 TOTAL SURFACE AREA DEPENDS ON FINNED LENGTH,

FINNED WIDTH, ROWS DEEP, NO. OF FINS/INCH

COILS
 FACE AREA :- DEPENDS ON FINNED LENGTH,
AND FINNED HEIGHT.
 FACE VELOCITY:- AIR QUANTITY / FACE AREA
 WATER CIRCUITS:- 1. FULL CIRCUIT - VELOCITY V
2. HALF CIRCUIT - 2V
3. QUARTER CIRCUIT - 4V

 INREASE IN CAPACITY WITH INCREASE IN WATER


PRESSURE DROP.
 HIGHER THE FINS/INCH, HIGHER THE TURBULENCE,
HIGHER THE AIR PRESSURE DROP & LOWER IS THE BY
PASS FACTOR.

COILS
 COOLING CAPACITY = SENSIBLE + LATENT

 SENSIBLE CAPACITY CAN BE ENHANCED BY


INCREASING FACE AREA.(GENERALY 4 ROWS DEEP)

 LATENT CAPACITY CAN BE ENHANCED BY INCREASING


ROW DEEP (GENERALY 6,8, ROWS)

 LOWERING COOLANT TEMP WILL INCREASED BOTH


SENSIBLE AND LATENT CAPACITY.

 HEATING HOT WATER COIL NORMALLY HAS MAXIMUM


2 ROWS DEEP COIL.

COILS
WHAT INFORMATION ARE REQUIRED TO
SELECT A COIL?

1. APPLICATION
2.TOTAL CAPACITY
3. SENSIBLE HEATRATIO
4. AIR QUANTITY
5. CHILLED WATER FLOW RATE
6. WATER INLET TEMPERATURE,
TEMPERATURE RISE

COILS
7. DESIRED LEAVING DBT & WBT
8. AIR ENTERING CONDITION
9. IN CASE OF DIRECT EXPANSION COIL,
SUCTION TEMPERATURE AND REFRIGERANT
PRESSURE DROP.
10. LIMITATION OF AIR & WATER PRESSURE DROP
11. SPACE LIMITATION

COILS
DESIGN BASICS
 FACE VELOCITY FOR LARGE FLOOR
MOUNTED AHU’s SHOULD BE LIMITED TO
MAXIMUN 550 FPM, FOR DX & CHILLED
WATER COILS TO AVOID MOISTURE CARRY
OVER

 FOR TERMINAL UNITS LIKE FCU’s IT CAN


BE 300 FPM FOR LOW AIR SIDE PRESSURE
DROP.

 WATER VELOCITY SHOULD BE PRFERABLY


KEPT BELOW 6 FPS AND MORE THAN 2 FPS

COILS
 HIGHER WATER PRESSURE DROP WILL
CONSUME MORE PUMPING ENERGY. HIGHER
AIR PRESSURE DROP WILL MEAN MORE FAN
POWER

 FOR HOT WATER COILS, WHERE THERE IS


NO CONDENSATE, FACE VELOCITY CAN BE
KEPT UPTO 750 FPM.

 HOWEVER IF HEATING COIL IS PLACED


IMMEDIATELY AFTER COOLING COIL IT
SHOULD HAVE SAME VELOCITY AS COOLING
COIL. AIR PRESSURE DROP FOR HOT WATER
COIL IS LOW, SINCE COIL IS DRY.
COILS
 FOR DX – COILS, REFRIGERANT PRESSURE
DROP SHOULD BE KEPT TO MINIMUM.

 DIRECT EXPANSION COILS ARE ONE IN


WHICH REFRIGERANT IS INTRODUCED
DIRECTLY. THE REFRIGERANT LIQUID
UNDER GOES A PHASE CHANGE. A
DISTRIBUTOR SHOULD BE USED WITH
EXPANSION VALVE TO DISTRIBUTE
REFRIGERANT UNIFORMALLY IN ALL THE
CIRCUITS.

COILS
CHECK LIST
12000 BTU / HR = 10000 ( SENSIBLE ) + 2000 ( LATENT )
OR
9000 3000
OR
8000 4000
OR
7000 5000

CAPACITY MAY BE SAME, BUT THE SENSIBLE


HEAT RATIO MAY NOT BE SAME

COILS
COIL SELECTED SHOULD MEET THE
FOLLOWING
 TOTAL LOAD, BTU/HR
 SENSIBLE LOAD, BTU / HR
 LEAVING AIR CONDITIONS, ( DBT & WBT )
ARE CLOSE TO HEAT LOADS.
 AIR & WATER PRESSURE DROP IS WITHIN
LIMITS
 FACE VELOCITY IS WITHIN LIMITS TO AVOID
MOISTURE CARRY OVER
COIL SIZE MEETS SPACE CONSTRAINTS OF AHU

COILS
THANK
YOU

COILS