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Prepared by:
Group A2
Orem’s General Theory
of Nursing

Ø First published in 1971, includes three
related concepts:
§ Self-care
§ Self-care deficit
§ Nursing systems
Ø is based on four concepts:
§ Self-care
§ Self-care agency
§ Self-care requisites
§ Therapeutic self-care demand
 Self-care - refers to those activities an
individual performs independently
throughout life to promote and maintain
personal well-being.
 Self-care agency - is the individual’s
ability to perform self-care activities. It
consists of two agents:
§ Self-care agent – an individual who
performs self-care independently.
§ Dependent care agent – a person other
than the individual who provides the

 Self-care requisites - also called self-care
needs, are measures or actions taken to
provide self-care.

Three categories of self-care requisites:

§ Universal requisites are common to all

people. They include maintaining intake
and elimination of air, water, and food;
balancing rest, solitude, and social
interaction; preventing hazards to life and
well-being; and promoting normal human
§ Developmental requisites result from
maturation or are associated with conditions
or events, such as adjusting to a change in
body image or to the loss of a spouse.
§ Health deviation requisites result from illness,
injury, or disease or its treatment. They
include actions such as seeking health care
assistance, carrying out prescribed
therapies, and learning to live with the effects
of illness or treatment.
 Therapeutic self-care demand refers to
all self-care activities required to meet
existing self-care requisites, or in other
words, actions to maintain health and

 R R Self-care
Conditioning Factors

Conditioning Factors

 R

Self-care agency Self-care demands

 R R Deficit

Conditioning Factors

Nursing agency

 The major components of Orem’s self-care deficit theory. R indicates relationship between components; <
indicates a current or potential deficit where nursing would be required.

Ø explains not only when nursing is needed
but also how people can be assisted
through five methods of helping: acting
or doing for, guiding, teaching,
supporting, and providing an
environment that promotes the
individual’s abilities to meet current
and future demands.
1. Wholly compensatory systems are
required for individuals who are
unable to control and monitor their
environment and process information.
3. Partly compensatory systems are
designed for individuals who are
unable to perform some, but not all,
self-care activities.
3. Supportive-educative (developmental)
systems are designed for persons
who need to learn to perform self-care
measures and need assistance to do

 Reference:
 (Kozier & Erb’s Fundamentals of Nursing Eight Edition
 pg. 44-45)
 THE END!!!