Muscular System

Lower Extremity
Reynaldo V. Lopez, M.D. Senior Lecturer, Department of Anatomy AUF School of Medicine

Muscles that Move the Femur at the Hip Joint
The ball-and-socket hip joint, with its 3 axes of rotation is capable of: 1. Flexion & extension 2. Abduction & adduction 3. Medial & lateral rotation

Muscles that Move the Femur at the Hip Joint
The flexors of the hip are the: 1. Psoas major 2. Iliacus * these muscles are considered together as the iliopsoas

Muscles that Move the Femur at the Hip Joint
The extensors of the hip are the: 1. Gluteus maximus 2. Hamstring muscles
Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Biceps femoris

Muscles that Move the Femur at the Hip Joint
The abductors/medial rotators of the hip are the: 1. Gluteus medius 2. Gluteus minimus 3. Tensor fasciae latae

Muscles that Move the Femur at the Hip Joint
The adductors of the hip are the: 1. Adductor longus 2. Adductor brevis 3. Adductor magnus

Muscles that Move the Femur at the Hip Joint
The lateral rotators of the hip are the: 1. Piriformis 2. Obturator externus 3. Obturator internus 4. Superior and inferior gemellus 5. Quadratus femoris

Muscles that Move the Femur at the Hip Joint

Muscles that Move the Femur at the Hip Joint

Muscles that Act at the Knee Joint
The knee is a hinge joint capable of flexion & extension, with a slight amount of medial & lateral rotation when not fully extended.

Muscles that Act at the Knee Joint
The flexors of the knee are the: 1. Biceps femoris 2. Semitendinosus 3. Semimebranosus 4. Sartorius 5. Gracilis 6. Popliteus

Muscles that Act at the Knee Joint
The extensors of the knee are the: 1. Rectus femoris 2. Vastus lateralis 3. Vastus intermedius 4. Vastus medialis

Muscles that Act at the Knee Joint

Muscles that Act at the Knee Joint

Muscles that Act at the Knee Joint

Muscles of the Leg 

Fascia lata of the leg surrounds muscles 
  

Tightly binds muscles Prevents swelling during exercise Aids venous return Divides leg into three compartments Extensor, fibular, and flexor retinacula 

Tendons are held in place by:  

Muscle movement at ankle and intertarsal joints

Muscles that Move the Foot

The ankle joint is a hinge joint capable of plantarflexion & dorsiflexion.

Muscles that Move the Foot
The plantarflexors of the ankle located at the posterior compartment are the: 1. Superficial muscles  



Triceps surae
Gastrocnemius Soleus

Muscles that Move the Foot
The plantarflexors of the ankle located at the posterior compartment are the: 2. Deep muscles 
  

Popliteus Peroneus longus Peroneus brevis Tibialis posterior

Muscles that Move the Foot

Muscles that Move the Foot
The dorsiflexors of the ankle located at the anterior compartment are the: 1. Tibialis anterior 2. Extensor digitorum longus 3. Extensor hallucis longus 4. Peroneus tertius

Muscles that Move the Foot
These muscles continue on to insert into the toes: 1. Extensor digitorum longus 2. Extensor hallucis longus

Muscles that Move the Foot

Muscles that Move the Foot
The movements of eversion of the foot (turning so the sole faces outward) & inversion (turning so the sole faces inward) use the subtalar axis.

Muscles that Move the Foot
The invertors are the: 1. Tibialis anterior ) tendons pass on the 2. Tibialis posterior ) great-toe side The evertors 1. Peroneus 2. Peroneus 3. Peroneus are the: longus ) tendons pass on the brevis ) little-toe side of the tertius ) subtalar axis

Muscles of the Lateral Compartment   

Peroneus longus Peroneus brevis Peronius tertius

Muscles of the Lateral Compartment

Muscles of the Toes
There are 4 basic muscle layers of the foot. The first layer contains the: 1. Abductor hallucis
(abducts the great toe)
2.

Flexor digitorum brevis
(flexes 2nd phalanges of the 4 small toes)

3.

Abductor digiti minimi
(abducts the small toe)

Muscles of the Toes
The second layer contains the: 1. Quadratus plantae
(flex the terminal phalanges of the 4 small toes)
2.

Lumbricals (flex the
proximal phalanges & extend the distal phalanges of the 4 small toes)

Muscles of the Toes
The third layer contains the: 1. Flexor hallucis brevis (flexes the
2. 3.

proximal phalanx of the great toes)

Adductor hallucis

(adducts the great toe)

Flexor digiti minimi brevis (flexes the

proximal phalanx of the little toe)

Muscles of the Toes
The fourth layer contains the: 1. 4 Dorsal interossei
(abduct 2nd, 3rd, & 4th toes & flex the proximal & extend the distal phalanges)
2.

3 Plantar interossei
(adduct the 3rd, 4th & 5th toes)

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