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You are on page 1of 43

Controls

by

D K Dey

Asstt Professor, JIPT , Raigarh

29.07.2013

A Brief History

early use of feedback in Wind Mills, Steam Engines,

Engines, Ships, Air Planes, Process Control , Tele

Communication

• The Field Emerges (1940-1945)

The Second World War

Spread like wild fire : Industry, Education,

Organization

• The Second Wave (1960 Onwards)

Space, Process Industry,

New Components, Digital Computers

Where Control is Used?

• Generation of Energy

• Transmission of Energy

• Communication

• Transportation : Cars, Ships, trains,

aircrafts,

• Industrial Processes

• Discrete Manufacturing

• Instrumentation,

• Biology,

• Medicines etc.

Process Control

• Objectives

• Introduction to System Integration

• Component of Process Control

• Basic Design Philosophy of Process

Control

• Feedback Control

Objectives

Control

• Be able to control a system with logical

actuators

• Be able to analyse and control system with a

Controller

Introduction to System Integration

• Sensors

• Actuators

• Communication

• Computing

• Architecture and Interfacing

The plant

part of control system

• Thus a control engineer need to be familiar

with Plant

• This includes a rudimentary knowledge of

all related systems

Objectives

designing sensor, actuator , control

architecture

• What does one want to achieve?

• What variable to be controlled?

• What level of performance is necessary? (

i.e. Speed / Accuracy)

MAN-MACHINE-INTERFACE

OPERATOR

PLANT

POWER PLANT CONTROL

UNIT CONTROL

INSTRUMENTATION

AND

CONTROL

MEASUREMENT MONITORING

CLOSE-LOOP OPEN-LOOP

CONTROL CONTROL

PROTECTION

CONCEPT OF C&I IN THERMAL POWER STATION

CRT DISPLAY UNIT

OPERATOR

CONTROL

ANALOG AND LOGS

BINARY

ROOM

SIGNALS

AUTOMATION

UNIT CONTROL EQUIPMENT

LOOP GROUP IVE ING, ALARM

CONTROL CONTROL LOGICS ANNUNCIATION

SIGNAL

CONDITIONING CONTROL INTERFACE PLANT INTERFACE

ALALOG, BINARY EQUIPMENT

MOTOR CONTROL CENTRE

SWITCH GEAR

M M

SIGNAL TRANSMITTER

ADVANTAGES OF AUTOMATION

INTERVENTION POSSIBLE.

HIERARCHY OF CONTROL

UNIT

CONTROL

GROUP CONTROL

(WHEN, HOW MANY,WHICH)

CONTROL INTERFACE

Sensors

• An Important Statement :

“If you can measure it , you can control it”

Continuous and Discrete Control

in the Chemical Process Industry are analog or

continuous variable control and digital or discrete

variable control

• Control of outlet temperature of a heat exchanger at

75 C is an example of continuous variable control

• In a batch process, stopping a pump supplying a liquid

raw material to a reactor when the level in the feed tank

reaches low level is an example of a discrete variable

control requirement.

Continuous Control

quantity that is expressed as a function of a real-valued domain,

usually time

• Diagram shows level control using continuous state control

• Both valve and level settings can vary over a wide range.

Discrete Control

state control

• Level and valve setting are discrete because they can

take only two values.

Benefits of Process I&C Systems

• Better utilization of production capacities

• Cuts down the excesses and waste of raw materials

• Operating data is presented to the operator in a

consolidated form

• Trending allows the operator to anticipate problems

before they occur.

• Data access or retrieval is easy

• Accurate control of process variables leads to overall

product quality improvements with low rejections

• Result to many supervisory control benefits

BASICS OF PROCESS CONTROL

• Process is any activity that has one or more

process Variables associated with it that are

important enough to be controlled and whose values

need to be known

• Equipment - where the process takes place

• Any parameter that changes either spontaneously

or because of external influence is a Dynamic

Variable

• Process Control therefore means regulating one

or more dynamic variables associated with the

process

BASICS OF PROCESS CONTROL

maintaining constant the value of a dynamic variable

• Process control system is a set of components

working together to achieve the objectives of

monitoring, controlling and optimizing a process

• Dynamic variables are :

a. Controlled variables,

b. Manipulated variables and

c. Load variables.

BASICS OF PROCESS CONTROL

controlled. The controlled variable is also called the

process variable and is abbreviated as Pv.

• A variable which is manipulated so that the

controlled variable gets maintained at the desired

value is called the manipulated variable

• A variable which affects the regulation i.e.

maintainability of controlled variable at the desired

value and is itself not manipulated, is called a load

variable

BASICS OF PROCESS CONTROL

variable is to be maintained is called the set point

usually abbreviated as Sp.

•The value of the electrical signal produced by a

controller after comparing the SP and PV values and

performing an special internal calculation is called the

output and is abbreviated as Op

•An entity consisting of a process, a measurement

device, a comparator, a controller and a final control

element that acts on the process is called a control loop

GENERAL CLOSE LOOP CONTROL DIAGRAM

BASICS OF PROCESS CONTROL

BASICS OF PROCESS CONTROL

BASICS OF PROCESS CONTROL

Proportional Control

that is proportional to the Current error value :

Pout = Kp.e(t)

Where

Pout: Proportional output

Kp: Proportional Gain, a tuning parameter

e: Error = Sp − Pv

t: Time or instantaneous time (the present)

Proportional Control

change in output for a given change in error

and System can become unstable

•Small gain results in a small output response

to a large input error, and a less sensitive

• In absence of disturbances, proportional

control will not settle at its target value, but

will retain a steady state error that is a

function of the proportional gain and the

process gain

Proportional Control

Integral Control

Contribution from the integral term is

proportional to both the magnitude of the error

and the duration of the error

integral gain and added to the controller output

term to the overall control action is determined

by the integral gain, Ki.

Integral Control

The integral term is given by:

t

Iout = Ki ∫ e(τ).dτ

0

Where :

Iout: Integral output

Ki: Integral Gain, a tuning parameter

e: Error = SP − PV

τ: Time in past contributing to integral response

Integral Control

•Integral term (when added to Proportional term)

accelerates movement of process towards set

point and eliminates residual steady-state error

that occurs with a proportional only controller

accumulated errors from the past, it can cause the

present value to overshoot the set point and then

create a deviation in the other direction

Integral Control

Diagram shows the effect of changing ki

Derivative Control

• Rate of change of Process Error is calculated by its first

derivative with respect to time and multiplying this rate of

change by the Derivative Gain Kd.

overall control action is termed the Derivative Gain, Kd.

Dout = Kd.de/dt

Kd :Derivative Gain, a tuning parameter

e : Error = Sp − Pv

t : Time or instantaneous time (the present)

Derivative Control

• Derivative term slows rate of change of controller

output and is most noticeable close to controller

setpoint

magnitude of overshoot produced by Integral

component and improve combined controller-

process stability

cause a process to become unstable if noise and

derivative gain are sufficiently large.

Derivative Control

• Diagram shows the effect of changing kd

PID Controller

• Proportional–Integral–Derivative

controller (PID controller) widely used

in industrial control systems

between a Measured Process Variable

and a Desired Set Point by calculating

and then outputting a corrective action

that can adjust the Process accordingly

PID Controller

parameters Proportional, Integral &Derivative values

a. Proportional value determines the reaction to

the Current Error,

b. Integral determines the reaction based on the

Sum of recent errors and

c. Derivative determines the reaction to the Rate

at which the error has been changing

adjust the process via a control element such as the

position of a control valve or the power supply of a

heating element

Forms in PID Controllers

• A. Interacting form:

influences the Integral part is called as

‘interacting form’. This type of form is most

common in commercial controllers.

Forms in PID Controllers

not influence ‘Derivative time Td’ is called

as ‘non- interacting form of controller’. This

type of control form is sometimes called

ISA algorithm or the ideal algorithm.

PID Controller

algorithms : Series, Ideal and Parallel

THANK YOU

+ 91-98931 01255

Email: dkdey@jindalpower.com

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