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An Introduction to Automatic

Controls
by
D K Dey
Asstt Professor, JIPT , Raigarh

29.07.2013
A Brief History

• The Roots (before 1940)


early use of feedback in Wind Mills, Steam Engines,
Engines, Ships, Air Planes, Process Control , Tele
Communication
• The Field Emerges (1940-1945)
The Second World War
Spread like wild fire : Industry, Education,
Organization
• The Second Wave (1960 Onwards)
Space, Process Industry,
New Components, Digital Computers
Where Control is Used?

• Generation of Energy
• Transmission of Energy
• Communication
• Transportation : Cars, Ships, trains,
aircrafts,
• Industrial Processes
• Discrete Manufacturing
• Instrumentation,
• Biology,
• Medicines etc.
Process Control

• Objectives
• Introduction to System Integration
• Component of Process Control
• Basic Design Philosophy of Process
Control
• Feedback Control
Objectives

• To understand the concepts behind Process


Control
• Be able to control a system with logical
actuators
• Be able to analyse and control system with a
Controller
Introduction to System Integration

• Plant -i.e. Process to be controlled


• Sensors
• Actuators
• Communication
• Computing
• Architecture and Interfacing
The plant

• The physical layout of a Plant is an intrinsic


part of control system
• Thus a control engineer need to be familiar
with Plant
• This includes a rudimentary knowledge of
all related systems
Objectives

• Formulate the control objectives before


designing sensor, actuator , control
architecture
• What does one want to achieve?
• What variable to be controlled?
• What level of performance is necessary? (
i.e. Speed / Accuracy)
MAN-MACHINE-INTERFACE

OPERATOR

INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL

PLANT
POWER PLANT CONTROL

UNIT CONTROL

BOILER TURBINE GENERATOR BOP


INSTRUMENTATION
AND
CONTROL

MEASUREMENT MONITORING

CLOSE-LOOP OPEN-LOOP
CONTROL CONTROL

PROTECTION
CONCEPT OF C&I IN THERMAL POWER STATION
CRT DISPLAY UNIT
OPERATOR

CONTROL
ANALOG AND LOGS
BINARY
ROOM

SIGNALS
AUTOMATION
UNIT CONTROL EQUIPMENT

CLOSED FUNCTIONAL PROT- DATA PROCESS-


LOOP GROUP IVE ING, ALARM
CONTROL CONTROL LOGICS ANNUNCIATION

SIGNAL
CONDITIONING CONTROL INTERFACE PLANT INTERFACE
ALALOG, BINARY EQUIPMENT
MOTOR CONTROL CENTRE
SWITCH GEAR

DRIVES PLANT FIELD


M M
SIGNAL TRANSMITTER
ADVANTAGES OF AUTOMATION

•OPERATING PERSONNEL FREED FROM ROUTINE TASKS

•INCORRECT INTERVENTIONS IN PROCESS AVOIDED.

•STRESS ON EQUIPMENT REDUCED.

•PLANT OPERATIONS GEARED FOR MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY

•INCIPIENT FAULTS RECOGNISED QUICKLY

•ON FAULT OCCURRENCE, IMMEDIATE AND LOGICAL


INTERVENTION POSSIBLE.
HIERARCHY OF CONTROL

UNIT
CONTROL

GROUP CONTROL
(WHEN, HOW MANY,WHICH)

SUB-GROUP CONTRL-1 SUB-GROUP CONTRL-2

CONTROL INTERFACE

SWITCH GEAR (MCC)


Sensors

• Sensor is the Eye of Control


• An Important Statement :
“If you can measure it , you can control it”
Continuous and Discrete Control

•Two main types of control requirements encountered


in the Chemical Process Industry are analog or
continuous variable control and digital or discrete
variable control
• Control of outlet temperature of a heat exchanger at
75 C is an example of continuous variable control
• In a batch process, stopping a pump supplying a liquid
raw material to a reactor when the level in the feed tank
reaches low level is an example of a discrete variable
control requirement.
Continuous Control

•A continuous signal or a continuous-time signal is a varying


quantity that is expressed as a function of a real-valued domain,
usually time
• Diagram shows level control using continuous state control
• Both valve and level settings can vary over a wide range.
Discrete Control

• Diagram below shows level control using discrete


state control
• Level and valve setting are discrete because they can
take only two values.
Benefits of Process I&C Systems

• Energy and raw material savings


• Better utilization of production capacities
• Cuts down the excesses and waste of raw materials
• Operating data is presented to the operator in a
consolidated form
• Trending allows the operator to anticipate problems
before they occur.
• Data access or retrieval is easy
• Accurate control of process variables leads to overall
product quality improvements with low rejections
• Result to many supervisory control benefits
BASICS OF PROCESS CONTROL
• Process is any activity that has one or more
process Variables associated with it that are
important enough to be controlled and whose values
need to be known
• Equipment - where the process takes place
• Any parameter that changes either spontaneously
or because of external influence is a Dynamic
Variable
• Process Control therefore means regulating one
or more dynamic variables associated with the
process
BASICS OF PROCESS CONTROL

• Regulation is the name given to this operation of


maintaining constant the value of a dynamic variable
• Process control system is a set of components
working together to achieve the objectives of
monitoring, controlling and optimizing a process
• Dynamic variables are :
a. Controlled variables,
b. Manipulated variables and
c. Load variables.
BASICS OF PROCESS CONTROL

• Controlled variables is any variable that is being


controlled. The controlled variable is also called the
process variable and is abbreviated as Pv.
• A variable which is manipulated so that the
controlled variable gets maintained at the desired
value is called the manipulated variable
• A variable which affects the regulation i.e.
maintainability of controlled variable at the desired
value and is itself not manipulated, is called a load
variable
BASICS OF PROCESS CONTROL

•The desired, fixed value at which the controlled


variable is to be maintained is called the set point
usually abbreviated as Sp.
•The value of the electrical signal produced by a
controller after comparing the SP and PV values and
performing an special internal calculation is called the
output and is abbreviated as Op
•An entity consisting of a process, a measurement
device, a comparator, a controller and a final control
element that acts on the process is called a control loop
GENERAL CLOSE LOOP CONTROL DIAGRAM
BASICS OF PROCESS CONTROL
BASICS OF PROCESS CONTROL
BASICS OF PROCESS CONTROL
Proportional Control

•The proportional term makes a change to the output


that is proportional to the Current error value :

Pout = Kp.e(t)
Where
Pout: Proportional output
Kp: Proportional Gain, a tuning parameter
e: Error = Sp − Pv
t: Time or instantaneous time (the present)
Proportional Control

•High Proportional Gain results in a large


change in output for a given change in error
and System can become unstable
•Small gain results in a small output response
to a large input error, and a less sensitive
• In absence of disturbances, proportional
control will not settle at its target value, but
will retain a steady state error that is a
function of the proportional gain and the
process gain
Proportional Control

Diagram shows the effect of changing kp :


Integral Control
Contribution from the integral term is
proportional to both the magnitude of the error
and the duration of the error

Accumulated error is then multiplied by the


integral gain and added to the controller output

Magnitude of the contribution of the integral


term to the overall control action is determined
by the integral gain, Ki.
Integral Control
The integral term is given by:
t
Iout = Ki ∫ e(τ).dτ
0

Where :
Iout: Integral output
Ki: Integral Gain, a tuning parameter
e: Error = SP − PV
τ: Time in past contributing to integral response
Integral Control
•Integral term (when added to Proportional term)
accelerates movement of process towards set
point and eliminates residual steady-state error
that occurs with a proportional only controller

•However, since the integral term is responding to


accumulated errors from the past, it can cause the
present value to overshoot the set point and then
create a deviation in the other direction
Integral Control
Diagram shows the effect of changing ki
Derivative Control
• Rate of change of Process Error is calculated by its first
derivative with respect to time and multiplying this rate of
change by the Derivative Gain Kd.

• Magnitude of contribution of the derivative term to the


overall control action is termed the Derivative Gain, Kd.

Dout = Kd.de/dt

Dout : Derivative output


Kd :Derivative Gain, a tuning parameter
e : Error = Sp − Pv
t : Time or instantaneous time (the present)
Derivative Control
• Derivative term slows rate of change of controller
output and is most noticeable close to controller
setpoint

• Hence, derivative control is used to reduce


magnitude of overshoot produced by Integral
component and improve combined controller-
process stability

•Highly sensitive to noise in error term, and can


cause a process to become unstable if noise and
derivative gain are sufficiently large.
Derivative Control
• Diagram shows the effect of changing kd
PID Controller

• Proportional–Integral–Derivative
controller (PID controller) widely used
in industrial control systems

• PID controller corrects the Error


between a Measured Process Variable
and a Desired Set Point by calculating
and then outputting a corrective action
that can adjust the Process accordingly
PID Controller

• PID Controller Algorithm involves three separate


parameters Proportional, Integral &Derivative values
a. Proportional value determines the reaction to
the Current Error,
b. Integral determines the reaction based on the
Sum of recent errors and
c. Derivative determines the reaction to the Rate
at which the error has been changing

• Weighted sum of these three actions is used to


adjust the process via a control element such as the
position of a control valve or the power supply of a
heating element
Forms in PID Controllers

• A. Interacting form:

The form in which the Derivative Time Td


influences the Integral part is called as
‘interacting form’. This type of form is most
common in commercial controllers.
Forms in PID Controllers

• B. Non - Interacting form:

Form in which the Integral time ‘Ti’ does


not influence ‘Derivative time Td’ is called
as ‘non- interacting form of controller’. This
type of control form is sometimes called
ISA algorithm or the ideal algorithm.
PID Controller

There are three major classifications of PID


algorithms : Series, Ideal and Parallel

Equation for the Controller are:


THANK YOU

For any enquiries please contact


+ 91-98931 01255
Email: dkdey@jindalpower.com