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Common Diseases


Cold (common colds) and the flu (influenza) are contagious

infections that affect the respiratory system. Both are airborne
illnesses, spread through coughing and sneezing. Colds
typically are confined to the upper respiratory system—the
nose and throat—but the flu affects the lungs and in severe
cases may cause death, especially in senior citizens, young
children, and those with a compromised immune system

DIARRHEA WHO estimates that 1.5 million people died from

diarrheal diseases in 2012, which comprises about 2.7 percent
of deaths. Fortunately, that’s down from 2.2 million in 2000.
Diarrheal disease is the second top killer of children under age
five. Tragically, about 760,000 children die from diarrheal
diseases each year.

Diabetes is a group of diseases that affect insulin production and

use. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas can no longer produce
insulin. The cause is not known. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas
doesn’t produce enough insulin, or it can’t be used effectively.
Type 2 diabetes can be caused by a number of factors, including
poor diet, lack of exercise, and carrying too much weight.
In 2012, about 1.5 million people died from diabetes-related
causes, according to WHO. People in low to middle income
countries are more likely to die from complications of diabetes.

Hepatitis B, a liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus, or

HBV, presents as acute or chronic illness. In about 5 percent of
adults with an acute infection of HBV, the disease becomes
chronic, according to the American Liver Foundation.
Hepatitis B
The deadliest disease in the world is coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD, also called
ischemic heart disease, occurs when the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart
become narrowed. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 7.4
million people died of ischemic heart disease in 2012. That was about 13.2 percent of
all deaths. Among the risk factors are high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and
smoking. Regular exercise, good nutrition, and weight control can help lower your
risk of developing CAD.
• COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is a chronic,
progressive lung disease that makes it hard to breathe. Chronic
bronchitis and emphysema are types of COPD.
• About 3.1 million deaths were attributed to COPD in 2012,
according to WHO. That represents about 5.6 percent of deaths,
a rate that has held steady since 2000. In 2004, about 64 million
people around the world were living with COPD
lower respiratory infections caused about 3.1 million, or 5.5
percent of deaths in 2012. This group of diseases includes
pneumonia, bronchitis, and influenza.
Overweight and Obesity- Being overweight or obese increases
your chances of dying from hypertension, type
2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, gallbladder
disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, respiratory problems,
dyslipidemia and endometrial, breast, prostate, and colon
• It is a disease caused by Mycobaterium tuberculosis .
• Primarly affects lungs and cause pulmonary tuberculosis
• It can also effect intestine , meninges , bones , joints depending up on the metastasis .

• In 2012, about 900,000 people lost their lives to TB, according to WHO estimates. The
majority of TB-related deaths happen in poorer countries. It is one of the top causes of
death for people who have HIV
• India accounts highest TB burden in world , accounts for 20% of global burden .
• Two out of every five Indians are effected with TB disease .
Mode of transmission
• Mainly transmitted by droplet
infection generated by sputum
positive patients with pulmonary
• Coughing and sneezing generates
largest no of droplets of all sizes
which are fresh enough to carry a
viable organism .

• Incubation period –
3-6 weeks from the day of receiving
the organism .
Control of the disease
1)RNTCP (Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program )
• The govt of india , WHO and world bank together reviewed the NTP(1962) in 1992.
• The main pillars of revised strategy are – 1) achievement of not less than 85% of cure
rate among infective cases, 2) detecting 70% of estimated cases through quality sputum
microscopy, 3) involvement of NGO, 4) DOTS (DIRECT OBSERVED THERAPY SHORT ) .
2) BCG vaccination
• The aim is to induce a benign , artificial primary infection which will stimulate an
acquired resistance to possible subsequent infection with virulent tuberculi bacilli .
• The vaccination is given soon after birth with in 4weeks a dose of 0.05ml intradermally .
• AIDS- Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
• HIV- Human Immuno-Deficiency virus .
• In this condition the virus breaks down the body’s immune system ,
leaving the victim vulnerable to life threatening opportunistic
infections , neurological disorders or unusual malignancies .
• AIDS refers to the last stage of HIV infection

Incubation period –
Few months to 10 years or even more