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Microwave Engineering

Assistant Professor, ECE,

SCET Kodakara

Microwaves

• Electromagnetic waves ( Frequency

ranges from 1 to 1000 GHz)

• Microwaves: So called, in terms of their

wavelength

Microwave Bands

Band Frequency

L 1-2 GHz

S 2-4 GHz

C 4-8 GHz

X 8-12 GHz

Ku 12-18 GHz

K 18-27 GHz

Ka 27-40 GHz

Advantages of Microwaves

1. Increased Bandwidth availability:

* More information can be transmitted.

* Can be used in long distance

communication applications (TV n/w,

telephone n/w, space communication,

telemetry, defense, etc.)

2. Improved directive properties

* As Frequency increases, Directivity increases,

Beamwidth, wavelength decreases, power

radiated, gain increases ( )

3. Fading Effect and Reliability:

* High frequency- LOS propagation- Hence,

less fading effect and thus more reliable.

4. Power requirements:

* Pretty low

5. Transparency property:

* Capable of freely propagating through

ionized layers surrounding the earth as well as

through atmosphere.

Applications of Microwaves

1. Telecommunication:

Intercontinental telephone, TV, space

communication

2. Radars:

Detect aircraft, observe and track weather

patterns

3. Commercial and Industrial applications use

heat property of microwaves:

Microwave oven, drying machines, food

processing industry, biomedical applications

4. Electronic warfare:

Electronic counter measure / Electronic

counter counter measure systems

Microwave Hybrid Circuits

be used for transmission of microwave signal.

• Microwave junction: Interconnection of 2 or more

microwave devices.

• Microwave junctions include: Waveguide tees

such as E plane tee, H plane tee, Magic Tee,

Hybrid ring, directional coupler and circulator.

• 2 Port device

described by a number of parameters ( H,Y,Z and

ABCD parameters)

• All these parameters relate total voltages & total

currents

• For instance,

• If the frequencies are in microwave range, the

H,Y and Z parameters can’t be measured.

• Reasons

1. Equipment : not readily available to measure

total voltage & total current at ports of n/w.

2.Short and open circuits are difficult to achieve

over a broad band of frequencies.

3. Active devices, such as power transistors

and tunnel diodes, frequently won’t have

stability for a short or open circuit.

S parameters

overcome the above problems.

• The logical variables to use at the microwave

frequencies are traveling waves rather than total

voltages and currents. These are the S

parameters

Physical significance of S

parameters

S parameter equations are expressed by,

Properties of S Matrix

2. Symmetry Property: [s] is a symmetric matrix

ie,

3. [s] is a unitary matrix ie,

4. Zero property: Sum of products of each term of

any row (column) multiplied by complex conjugate

of corresponding terms of any other rows (or,

columns) is zero

ie,

5. If any of the terminal or reference planes (say

the kth port ) is moved away from the junction by

an electric distance , each of the coefficients

Sij involving k will be multiplied by the factor

elements of [s] are zero.

7. Unity property: Sum of the products of each

term of any one row (or column ) multiplied by

its complex conjugate is unity.

Waveguide Tees

line junction with 3 independent ports in

microwave circuits, is known so.

• These are characterized by a matrix of 3rd

order containing 9 elements, 6 of which

should be independent.

Characteristics of 3 port junction

• Can be explained using 3 theorems. These are

derived from the equivalent circuit representation

of Tee junction

1. E plane Tee ( Series Tee)

arm is parallel to the E field of the main guide.

• If collinear arms are symmetric about the side arm, there

are 2 different transmission characteristics

fed into port 1 and port 2,

Output at port 3 will be

Subtractive.

Port 3 will result in waves at

Ports 1 and 2, which are

equal in magnitude but opposite in phase

• S parameter of E plane Tee:

• If the E plane Tee is perfectly matched at the

junction, diagonal components of S matrix will be

zero.

waves at ports 1 and 2, will be equal in

magnitude but opposite in phase. So,

• So, for a matched junction, S matrix will be

……..(1)

• From symmetry property,

….(2)

• From zero property,

…..(3)

Hence,

……….(4).

this means that either or both,

should be zero

• From unity property,

……..(5)

……..(6)

……..(7)

• For if S13, S23=0, eqn.(7) becomes false.

• This inconsistency proves that the Tee junction

can’t be matched to 3 arms. (Diagonal elements

all are not zeros)

• But since, collinear arms are symmetric about

the side arm,

• Now, S matrix is,

S33=0. Now,

• Now, S matrix is,

H plane Tee ( Shunt Tee)

• It is the a waveguide tee in which the axis of its

side arm is shunting the E field or parallel to the

H field of the main guide

• If 2 input waves are fed into port 1 and 2, the output at port 3 will be

in phase and additive. (3rd port is called sum arm)

• If input is fed into port 3, wave will split equally into port 1 and port 2

in phase and in same magnitude.

S Matrix of H plane Tee

• Therefore, S matrix of H plane Tee is similar to

that of E plane Tee except that,

• From symmetry property,

arm,

• If port 3 is perfectly matched to the junction,

S33=0. So, S matrix would be,

Magic Tee (Hybrid Tee)

• It is a combination of E plane Tee and H

plane Tee

Characteristics of Magic Tee

S Matrix of Magic Tee

• It is a square matrix of order (4 X 4)

• If port 3 (E arm) and port 4 (H arm) are perfectly

matched to the junction, S33=0, S44=0.

• As collinear arms are symmetrical about side arms,

S33=0, S44=0

• As there is no power flow in between E and H arms,

S34=S43=0

• When the wave is incident at port 3 (E arm), the resulting

waves at ports 1 and 2, will be equal in magnitude but

opposite in phase. So, S24= -S14

• When the wave is incident at port 4( H arm), the resulting

waves at ports 1 and 2, will be equal in magnitude and in

phase. So, S23= S13

• So, S matrix would be, [S]=

• Now, S matrix is [S]=

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