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Introduction to

Microwave Engineering

Ros Marie C Cleetus,


Assistant Professor, ECE,
SCET Kodakara
Microwaves
• Electromagnetic waves ( Frequency
ranges from 1 to 1000 GHz)
• Microwaves: So called, in terms of their
wavelength
Microwave Bands

Band Frequency
L 1-2 GHz

S 2-4 GHz

C 4-8 GHz

X 8-12 GHz

Ku 12-18 GHz

K 18-27 GHz

Ka 27-40 GHz
Advantages of Microwaves
1. Increased Bandwidth availability:
* More information can be transmitted.
* Can be used in long distance
communication applications (TV n/w,
telephone n/w, space communication,
telemetry, defense, etc.)
2. Improved directive properties
* As Frequency increases, Directivity increases,
Beamwidth, wavelength decreases, power
radiated, gain increases ( )
3. Fading Effect and Reliability:
* High frequency- LOS propagation- Hence,
less fading effect and thus more reliable.
4. Power requirements:
* Pretty low
5. Transparency property:
* Capable of freely propagating through
ionized layers surrounding the earth as well as
through atmosphere.
Applications of Microwaves
1. Telecommunication:
Intercontinental telephone, TV, space
communication
2. Radars:
Detect aircraft, observe and track weather
patterns
3. Commercial and Industrial applications use
heat property of microwaves:
Microwave oven, drying machines, food
processing industry, biomedical applications
4. Electronic warfare:
Electronic counter measure / Electronic
counter counter measure systems
Microwave Hybrid Circuits

• Combination of several microwave devices can


be used for transmission of microwave signal.
• Microwave junction: Interconnection of 2 or more
microwave devices.
• Microwave junctions include: Waveguide tees
such as E plane tee, H plane tee, Magic Tee,
Hybrid ring, directional coupler and circulator.
• 2 Port device

• From network theory, 2 port device can be


described by a number of parameters ( H,Y,Z and
ABCD parameters)
• All these parameters relate total voltages & total
currents
• For instance,
• If the frequencies are in microwave range, the
H,Y and Z parameters can’t be measured.
• Reasons
1. Equipment : not readily available to measure
total voltage & total current at ports of n/w.
2.Short and open circuits are difficult to achieve
over a broad band of frequencies.
3. Active devices, such as power transistors
and tunnel diodes, frequently won’t have
stability for a short or open circuit.
S parameters

• New method of characterization, needed to


overcome the above problems.
• The logical variables to use at the microwave
frequencies are traveling waves rather than total
voltages and currents. These are the S
parameters
Physical significance of S
parameters

• For a multiport (N) networks or components, the


S parameter equations are expressed by,
Properties of S Matrix

1. [s] is always a square matrix of order (NXN)


2. Symmetry Property: [s] is a symmetric matrix
ie,
3. [s] is a unitary matrix ie,
4. Zero property: Sum of products of each term of
any row (column) multiplied by complex conjugate
of corresponding terms of any other rows (or,
columns) is zero
ie,
5. If any of the terminal or reference planes (say
the kth port ) is moved away from the junction by
an electric distance , each of the coefficients
Sij involving k will be multiplied by the factor

6. Under perfect matched conditions, the diagonal


elements of [s] are zero.
7. Unity property: Sum of the products of each
term of any one row (or column ) multiplied by
its complex conjugate is unity.
Waveguide Tees

• Tee junctions: A waveguide or coaxial


line junction with 3 independent ports in
microwave circuits, is known so.
• These are characterized by a matrix of 3rd
order containing 9 elements, 6 of which
should be independent.
Characteristics of 3 port junction
• Can be explained using 3 theorems. These are
derived from the equivalent circuit representation
of Tee junction
1. E plane Tee ( Series Tee)

• It is a waveguide Tee in which the axis of its side


arm is parallel to the E field of the main guide.
• If collinear arms are symmetric about the side arm, there
are 2 different transmission characteristics

• (a) If two input waves are


fed into port 1 and port 2,
Output at port 3 will be
Subtractive.

• (b) A wave incident at


Port 3 will result in waves at
Ports 1 and 2, which are
equal in magnitude but opposite in phase
• S parameter of E plane Tee:
• If the E plane Tee is perfectly matched at the
junction, diagonal components of S matrix will be
zero.

• When the wave is incident at port 3, the resulting


waves at ports 1 and 2, will be equal in
magnitude but opposite in phase. So,
• So, for a matched junction, S matrix will be

……..(1)
• From symmetry property,
….(2)
• From zero property,
…..(3)
Hence,
……….(4).
this means that either or both,
should be zero
• From unity property,
……..(5)
……..(6)
……..(7)
• For if S13, S23=0, eqn.(7) becomes false.
• This inconsistency proves that the Tee junction
can’t be matched to 3 arms. (Diagonal elements
all are not zeros)
• But since, collinear arms are symmetric about
the side arm,
• Now, S matrix is,

• If port 3 is perfectly matched to the junction,


S33=0. Now,
• Now, S matrix is,
H plane Tee ( Shunt Tee)
• It is the a waveguide tee in which the axis of its
side arm is shunting the E field or parallel to the
H field of the main guide

• If 2 input waves are fed into port 1 and 2, the output at port 3 will be
in phase and additive. (3rd port is called sum arm)
• If input is fed into port 3, wave will split equally into port 1 and port 2
in phase and in same magnitude.
S Matrix of H plane Tee
• Therefore, S matrix of H plane Tee is similar to
that of E plane Tee except that,
• From symmetry property,

• As, collinear arms are symmetric about the side


arm,
• If port 3 is perfectly matched to the junction,
S33=0. So, S matrix would be,
Magic Tee (Hybrid Tee)
• It is a combination of E plane Tee and H
plane Tee
Characteristics of Magic Tee
S Matrix of Magic Tee
• It is a square matrix of order (4 X 4)

• From symmetry property,


• If port 3 (E arm) and port 4 (H arm) are perfectly
matched to the junction, S33=0, S44=0.
• As collinear arms are symmetrical about side arms,
S33=0, S44=0
• As there is no power flow in between E and H arms,
S34=S43=0
• When the wave is incident at port 3 (E arm), the resulting
waves at ports 1 and 2, will be equal in magnitude but
opposite in phase. So, S24= -S14
• When the wave is incident at port 4( H arm), the resulting
waves at ports 1 and 2, will be equal in magnitude and in
phase. So, S23= S13
• So, S matrix would be, [S]=
• Now, S matrix is [S]=