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# Chapter 4:

Network Access

Introduction to Networks

Chapter 4
4.1 Physical Layer Protocols
4.2 Network Media
4.4 Media Access Control
4.5 Summary

Prerequisite

Fundamentals of communication signal
ANALOG SIGNAL
DIGITAL SIGNAL

Frequency

 Frequency = # of cycles/second

##  shorter wave length produce higher frequencies

b/c the waves are closer together
UNIT USED TO MEASURE FREQUENCY
 Hertz =>means Cycles Per Second
 Kilohertz
 Megahertz
 Gigahertz etc
Prefixes used together with HERTZ or bps

##  Kilo (K) = 103 = 1 Thousand

 Mega (M) = 106 =1 Million
 Giga (G) = 109 = 1 Billion
 Tera (T) = 1012 = 1 Trillion
 Peta (P) = 1015 = 1 Quadrillion
 Exa (E) = 1018 =1 Quintillion

Note: In computing world
 1 KB ≈ 103 B
 1 KB = 1024 B = 210 B
Hence

 1 KB = 210 bytes
 1 MB = 220 bytes
 1 GB =230 bytes
 1 TB = 240 bytes
 1 PB = 250 bytes

Digital signal

COMPUTER CODING SYSTEM
Numbers, letters and symbols found on the
keyboard are coded.
We need standard. The popular one is
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information
interchange) code

For example:

A is represented by 01000001
0 is represented by 00110000
1 is represented by 00110001 etc.
What is BANDWIDTH?
The data transmission capacity of
a communications channel
i.e. The amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed
amount of time.

carry more traffic than a TWO-
Similarly some COMCHA can carry
more data than others.
Illustration to understand bandwidth

The BANDWIDTH of digital COMCHA is
usually expressed in Bits Per Second (bps) or Bytes
per second (BPS)

## The BANDWIDTH of Analog devices

/analog COMCHA is expressed in cycles per second, or
HERTZ (Hz)

Throughput is the measure of the transfer of bits across the media over a given period of time.

What is Throughput?
 It is the measure of the
transfer of bits across the
media over a given period of
time.
 Due to a number of factors, throughput usually does not match the
specified bandwidth in physical layer implementations

## Many factors influence

throughput including:
 The amount of traffic
 The type of traffic
 The latency created by the number
of network devices encountered
between source and destination
Measuring internet connection speed
www.speedtest.net

What is Goodput?
Goodput is the measure of usable
data transferred over a given
period of time.
Goodput = throughput – (traffic
sessions, acknowledgements, and
encapsulation)

 Fundamentals of
signal/data transmission
BASE BAND TRANSMISSION
 Allocates the entire bandwidth to a single channel
 Best suited for LAN
 Only supports digital signaling
 Signal flows in the form of discrete pulses of
electricity or light

##  divides the available bandwidth into multiple

channels
i.e. more than one device can
transmit at a time
 can transfer large quantities of data at a time
 Supports analog as well as digital signaling
 designed for signaling over long distance
communications
 Suitable for WANs

4.1 Physical Layer Protocols

##  a. How do you get

physically connected to
LAN?
Using
 Shared Hub
 Shared Switch
 Wireless AP/WAP
 ISRs/home router
Connecting to the wired LAN

Connecting to the wireless LAN with a range
Extender
 Use NICs to connect
end devices to the
network
 Ethernet NIC
/wired connections/

##  Ethernet WLAN NICs

/wireless connection/
End devices might
have one or both
types of NICS
b. What is the Purpose of the Physical layer protocol?

## The PL encodes the frames and creates the

electrical, optical, or radio wave signals that
represent the bits in each frame.

Physical Layer Standards
a. The physical layer standards address

i. Physical Components
 Media, NICs, connectors etc

ii. Encoding
 The physical layer must generate the
electrical, optical, or wireless signals
(Signaling)
 provide codes for control purposes such as
identifying the beginning and end of a frame.
4.1.2.4 Lab - Identifying Network Devices
and Cabling

## Filed visit (tour)

AAU-CBE-school of commerce

4.2 Network Media
Bounded media
1. Copper Media (copper cable)
2. OPTICAL MEDIA (fiber optic

Unbounded media
3. Wireless media air, water,
outer space(vacuum), etc
i. Copper Media
Two types:-

Twisted-pair cable
Coaxial cable (co-ax)

1. Twisted-pair cable

The problem of Electromagnetic
Fog in copper media
Source of electromagnetic fog
 DATA CABLE WHICH CARRIES SIGNAL
 MOTORS
 POWER TRANSFORMERS.
 CELLULAR PHONE
 ELECTRIC VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION LINES

Hence in copper media, the following
THREATS should be considered

## Noise (unwanted signal) to be considered 

i. External Electromagnetic Interferences (EMI)
ii. Radio frequency interferences (10KHz to 6GHz
(regulated by Federal communications Commission
(FCC)) ) (RFI)
 Note: Frequencies for unregulated use are:
902-928 MHz - Cordless phones, remote controls.
2.4 GHz ( used in Wi-Fi, Bluetooth )
5.72-5.85 GHz
11 – 23 GHz microwave signals

## iii. Crosstalk (background conversations )

Noise in copper media

HOW THESE THREATS CAN
BE PROTECTED?

## 1. BY TWISTING cancels out electrical noise

from adjacent pairs/DATA WIRE and from
other external sources.
2. BY SHIELDING can increase
immunity/Resistance to EMI & RFI

How Crosstalk occurs?
 Crosstalk is the noise
or twisted data wires pair-
to-pair coupling and data
wire –to- data wire coupling
 Twisting the wires can
enhance cancellation
effect.
 a cable with short twist
length is preferable to
reduce such noise
Attenuation causes signals to
deteriorate
Themaximum data transmission length of
twisted pair cable is 100 meters

TYPES OFTWISTED PAIR
CABLE
There are two types
of twisted pair
cable BASED
ON SHIELDING
1. Unshielded
Twisted Pair
cable (UTP)
2. Shielded
twisted pair
cable (STP)
UTP Cabling Standards

Category 6
• Similar to CAT 5/5e.
• but contains a physical separator
between the 4 pairs To reduce
the effect of crosstalk, EMI, and
RFI,

Category 7
This category is still in the development stage and use
I. Braided Aluminum shielding
ii. Aluminum foil shielding for each pairs
Note: requires grounding

Crimping Standards

Standard Ethernet wiring scheme

A. Straight-Through Cable (ll)
For connecting unlike devices

 Router to hub X
 Router to switch 
 Switch to PC or server 
 Hub to PC or server X
 Network printer to switch 
 Network printer to hub X
Example -1
Crimp and test Straight-Through Cable (ll) using the
standard T568B.

Steps
You must strip the jacket 3 to 5 cm using striper
Arrange the wires

•Cut the wires straight
across so that no more
than 1.25 cm of wires
are exposed from the
jacket This controls
terminal cross-talk
interference

the connector, white-
orange on left

Note

## Pin 1 & Pin 2 are

transmitter
Pin 3 & Pin 6 are receiver

B. Crossover cables (X)

## Used to connect like devices

 Switch to switch 
 Switch to hub X
 Hub to hub X
 Router to router 
 PC to PC 
 Router to PC 
Example-2

##  Crimp and test X-over

cable using T568B
standard

C. Rollover Cable/console cable
 Used for intermediary devices configuration

Instruments required
RJ-45/11 Crimpier
Punch Down Tool

Connecting on RJ-45 Jack

Wiring Closet (RACK)

How do you avoid this problem?

Testing UTP Cables

Network Cable
Tracer/tracker Network cable tester

Warning
Guarding Against
Electrostatic Discharge
(ESD)
before inserting NIC into
Coaxial Cable

OPTICAL MEDIA
Fiber Optic Cable (Outdoor)

Fiber Optic Cable (Indoor)
µm =a unit of length known as a micron or
micrometer.
1 µm = 0.000001 meter = 10-6 meter

 Optical fiber cable contains glass (or in some cases,
plastic) fibers rather than copper wire.
 Signals are transmitted across these fibers in the form
of light pulses rather than electrical pulses.
 Optical fiber strands are thin filaments of glass
consisting of an inner core and an outer cladding.
 Both the core and the cladding are glass (plastic), and
each has a different refractive index (light passing
capability) less dense medium has more refractive index
than more dense medium
 When these light pulses strike the cladding (dense
medium) they are reflected back into the core because
the cladding has a lower refractive index than the core.
This keeps the transmitted signal within the core as it
travels down the fiber.
Types of fiber optic cable
1. Single-mode FOC (SMF)
core diameter of
approximately= 9 µm
2. Multimode FOC (MMF)
the most commonly used
type
core diameter = 50/62.5
µm.
both is 125 µm.
Multimode FOC

Single mode FOC

Fiber Optic Cable Connectors
 Straight Tip (ST) connector:-
It is a connector that uses a
mechanism similar to the
BNC connectors used by
thinnet. The most popular
 Subscriber connector (SC):-
are square shaped and have
release mechanisms to
prevent the cable from
accidentally being
unplugged

continued…….
 Lucent Connector
(LC): Sometimes
called a little or local
connector, is quickly
growing in popularity
due to its smaller
size. It is used with
single-mode fiber and
also supports
multimode fiber.

Common fiber patch cords

LC connectors magnified…

Sample fiber NICs

Fusion Splicer
fiber optic pigtail
 fiber optic pigtail is a piece of fiber with connector installed on
one end only.
 used for terminating a out door fiber to the fiber patch panel
by using fusion splicer.

Fiber Optic Cabling
Testing Fiber Cables  Misalignment: The
fiber-optic media are
not precisely aligned to
one another when
joined.
 End gap: The media
does not completely
touch at the splice or
connection.
 End finish: The media
ends are not well
polished or dirt is
present at the
Presentation_ID
termination.
Fiber Optic Cabling
Fiber versus Copper
Implementation issues Copper media Fibre-optic

## Relatively short Relatively High

Distance (1 – 100 meters) (1 – 100,000 meters)

High
Immunity to EMI and RFI Low
(Completely immune)

High
Immunity to electrical hazards Low
(Completely immune)

## Safety precautions Lowest Highest

Commonly used outdoor FOC
1. Aerial Cable/Self-Supporting provides ease of
installation -above ground and reduces time and cost

Continued…
2. Armored Cable  can be used for rodent –(type of rat )
protection in direct burial if required

Wireless Media
Types of Wireless Media
• IEEE 802.11 standards
• Commonly referred to as Wi-Fi.
• Uses CSMA/CA
• Variations include:
• 802.11a: 54 Mbps, 5 GHz
• 802.11b: 11 Mbps, 2.4 GHz
• 802.11g: 54 Mbps, 2.4 GHz
• 802.11n: 600 Mbps, 2.4 and 5 GHz
• 802.11ac: 1 Gbps, 5 GHz
• 802.11ad: 7 Gbps, 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 60 GHz

## • IEEE 802.15 standard

• Supports speeds up to 3 Mbps
• Provides device pairing over distances from 1 to
100 meters.

## • IEEE 802.16 standard

• Provides speeds up to 1 Gbps
• Uses a point-to-multipoint topology to provide

Wi-MAX /point to multipoint topology/
used by service providers

Wireless Media
Wireless LAN

## Cisco Linksys EA6500 802.11ac wireless router

Wireless Media
802.11 Wi-Fi Standards

Maximum Backwards
Standard Frequency
Speed compatible

## 1.3 Gbps 2.4 GHz and 5.5

802.11ac (1300 Mbps) GHz
802.11b/g/n

802.11b/g/n/ac