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Ground Water Quality Evaluation

in a Rural Stretch of Tezpur, Assam


(India)

Using Water Quality Index

By
Neeraj Nikhil,
CIB10014
Vivek Kumar ,
Dept of Civil
CIB10020
Engineering
Nirab Medhi ,
INDIA – PRESENT SCENARIO

Majority of rural and


semi urban population
depends on Ground
Water

Untreated/ill-treated
water may lead to
several undesirable
effect

Being the resident of Tezpur we have taken the initiative to


find the problems associated with the DRINKING water
TEZPUR – PRESENT SCENARIO

Unaware POLLUTANTS
Rural and semi-urban Population

Groundwater developed few intuitive techniques


to meet domestic needs for WATER PURIFICATION

Which may contain Evolved through past


Iron, fluoride, arsenic, turbidity experiences
etc., and carried through
generations
May not meet
STANDARDS
3
Affects of the main problem
causing contaminants
Fluoride

Discoloration
and mottling
of teeth

Bone fluorisis
Iron
Arsenic
Turbidity
Government Initiative

‘Water Technology Initiative’ of DST

toprovide
to providesafe
safedrinking
drinking
Major Objectives

water ataffordable
waterat affordablecost
costand
andin
in

adequate
adequatequantity
quantityusing
using
appropriate science and technological
appropriate science and technological
interventions.
interventions.

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Government Initiative
WAR for Water:

• Prepared by Ministry of Science and Technology on


the directive of Hon’ble Supreme Court of India.

• Highlights the need for imminent technical


solutions to the problems of water scarcity in the
country

Solving problems of water scarcity through undertaking


Challenge

R & D of demonstratable technical solutions for


Major

geological contamination with IRON, FLUORIDE &

ARSENIC.

10
Major Objective

To characterize water quality of the study area and


identify changes or trends in water quality over time.

To identify specific existing or emerging water quality


problems based on analysis of the data using WQI

To examine whether compliance with pollution regulations


or implementation of effective pollution control actions are
being met

To suggest specific water quality alleviation and/or pollution


prevention/ remediation strategies by synthesizing the findings
of the study.
Total Work

Panchmile
20 aug
Dolabari pH
30 aug
NERIWALM Iron
10 sep
Aambagan Fluoride
21 sep
Tribeni TDS
29 sep
Turbidity WQI
Mission Chariali 10 oct
Hardness Calculated
Parowa Chariali 19 oct
Alkalinity
31 oct
Parowa Gaon
DO
9 nov
Near Kabristhan EC
18 nov
TU Main Gate
Sampling
Sampling
Ten batches of samples have been collected from the locations shown and
preserved as per the guidelines.

TU
GATE

KABRISTAN

PANCHMILE
PORWA

MISSION
DOLABARI
CHARIALI
PAROWA CHARIALI

NERIWALM

TRIBENI
AAMBAGA
N
Panchmile Dolabari

NERIWALM AAMBAGAN
TRIBENI Mission Chariali

PAROWA
Parowa Chariali GAON
Near Kabristhan

TU Main Gate
Legends for the sampling months with
corresponding seasons

MONTH LEGEND

AUGUST MONSOON

SEPTMEBER MONSOON

OCTOBER RECEDING MONSOON

NOVEMBER POST MONSOON


Analysis Of the Samples

Sampling done

20 Aug
30 Aug Analyzed
10 Sep as per Standard
21 Sep Guidelines
29 Sep
10 Oct
19 Oct
31 Oct
9 Nov
18 Nov
Results
pH (WHO/BIS range – 6.5 to 8.5)

Panchmile Dolabari NERIWALM Aaambagan Tribeni Mission Chariali


9
Parowa Chariali Parowa Kabristan TU Gate

7
pH

4
14-Aug 3-Sep 23-Sep 13-Oct 2-Nov 22-Nov 12-Dec

Collection Date
TDS (WHO/BIS limit – 2000 mg/L)

Panchmile Dolabari NERIWALM Aaambagan Tribeni Mission Chariali Parowa Chariali


Parowa Kabristan TU Gate

400
TDS (mg/L)

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0
14-Aug 3-Sep 23-Sep 13-Oct 2-Nov 22-Nov 12-Dec

Collection Date
Electrical Conductivity (WHO/BIS limit - 500μs/cm)

Panchmile Dolabari NERIWALM Aaambagan Tribeni


Mission Chariali Parowa Chariali Parowa Kabristan TU Gate
900

800

700

600
EC

500

400

300

200

100

0
14-Aug 3-Sep 23-Sep 13-Oct 2-Nov 22-Nov 12-Dec

Collection Date
Turbidity (WHO/BIS limit – 5 NTU)

Panchmile Dolabari NERIWALM Aaambagan Tribeni


Mission Chariali Parowa Chariali Parowa Kabristan TU Gate
55

50

45

40

35
Turbidity (NTU)

30

25

20

15

10

0
14-Aug 3-Sep 23-Sep 13-Oct 2-Nov 22-Nov 12-Dec

Collection Date
Iron (WHO/BIS limit – 0.3 mg/L)

Panchmile Dolabari NERIWALM Aaambagan Tribeni


Mission Chariali Parowa Chariali Parowa Kabristan TU Gate
3.00

2.50

2.00
IRON (mg/L)

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Collection Date
Hardness (WHO/BIS limit – 600mg/l)

Panchmile Dolabari NERIWALM Aaambagan Tribeni


Mission Chariali Parowa Chariali Parowa Kabristan TU Gate
300

250

200
Hardness (mg/L)

150

100

50

0
14-Aug 3-Sep 23-Sep 13-Oct 2-Nov 22-Nov 12-Dec

Collection Date
Fluoride (WHO/BIS limit - 1.5 mg/L)

Panchmile Dolabari NERIWALM Aaambagan Tribeni


Mission Chariali Parowa Chariali Parowa Kabristan TU Gate

3.00

2.50

2.00
Fluoride (mg/L)

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00
14-Aug 3-Sep 23-Sep 13-Oct 2-Nov 22-Nov 12-Dec

Collection Date
Alkalinity (WHO/BIS limit – 200mg/l)

Panchmile Dolabari NERIWALM Aaambagan Tribeni


Mission Chariali Parowa Chariali Parowa Kabristan TU Gate

600

500

400
Alkalinity

300

200

100

0
14-Aug 3-Sep 23-Sep 13-Oct 2-Nov 22-Nov 12-Dec

Collection Date
DO Not Desirable

Panchmile Dolabari NERIWALM Aaambagan Tribeni


Mission Chariali Parowa Chariali Parowa Kabristan TU Gate

4
DO (ppm)

0
14-Aug 3-Sep 23-Sep 13-Oct 2-Nov 22-Nov 12-Dec

Collection Date
Analysis
What is Water Quality Index?
• A water quality index is a mean to summarize large amounts of water quality

data into simple terms (e.g., good, medium, fair, etc.) for reporting to

management and the public in a consistent manner.

• Water Quality Index (WQI) is one of the most effective tools to

communicate information on the quality of water to concerned citizens and

policy makers.

• Once the WQI are developed and applied, they serve as convenient tools to

examine trends, to highlight specific environmental conditions, and to help

governmental decision-makers in evaluating the effectiveness of regulatory

programmes .
Analysis Based on Water Quality Index (WQI)

= weighted sum

Where,
qi is the water quality score of parameter i

wi is the relative weighting factor of parameter i


n is the number of parameters
Water Quality Index

Water Quality Factors and Weights

Parameters Weight

pH 0.25

Total Dissolved Solids 0.3125

Turbidity 0.1875

EC 0.25
Water Quality Index

WQI Quality Scale

91 - 100 Excellent water quality

71 – 90 Good water quality

51 – 70 Medium or average water quality

26 – 50 Fair water quality

0 - 25 Poor water quality


Sample calculation of WQI values
Sampling Date: 10th October 2013
Site: NERIWALM (Station: 03)

Parameter Values qi wi qiwi

pH 6.75 82 0.25 20.5

TDS 305 59 0.3125 18.4375

Turbidity 0.80 97 0.1875 18.1875

EC 560 55 0.25 13.75


WQI = 71
Good water
quality
WQI based on mean values

Unfit for drinking


Sampling Sites WQI (Mean) Quality
Panchmile 73 Good water quality High Iron conc.
Dolabari 66 Medium or average water quality
NERIWALM 70 Medium or average water quality
Aaambagan 72 Good water quality
Tribeni 69 Medium or average water quality
Mission Chariali 82 Good water quality
Parowa Chariali 73 Good water quality
Parowa Gaon 77 Good water quality
Kabristan 76 Good water quality
TU Gate 81 Good water quality
100

oodd

oodd
GGoo

GGoo
um

oodd

oodd
fifitt
m

oodd
80 i iu

GGoo

GGoo
um

oodd
UUnn

ed

GGoo
i d

GGoo
ed M e
M M

60

40

20

0
ile ri an en
i li li wa an te
m ab
a LM g ir b
ir a ria ro ist Ga
h ol
A ba Ch
a h a
Pa r
nc IW
am
T
aC
b TU
a D R n Ka
P
N
E Aa sio ro
w
is Pa
M
WQI based on adverse values

Unfit for drinking


Sampling Sites WQI Quality
Panchmile 71 Good water quality High Iron conc.
Dolabari 58 Medium or average water quality
NERIWALM 63 Medium or average water quality
Aaambagan 63 Medium or average water quality
Tribeni 61 Medium or average water quality
Mission Chariali 78 Good water quality
Parowa Chariali 67 Medium or average water quality
Parowa Gaon 74 Good water quality
Kabristan 57 Medium or average water quality
TU Gate 74 Good water quality
100

oodd
GGoo

oodd

oodd
fifitt

80 iu
m

GGoo

GGoo
um um
UUnn

i i m d
m ed ed diu M
e m
diu M M e
diu
e M e
M M
60

40

20

0
ile a ri M a n
en
i
ia
li
ia
li wa a n a te
hm lab AL ag ir b a r a r ro ist G
nc o IW
b T Ch Ch Pa b r
TU
Pa D
ER aam n a Ka
N A
is sio aro
w
M P
Conclusion
Conclusion

High iron concentration


High iron concentration
Unfit for
Panchmile
Panchmile drinking

High turbidity during


High turbidity during
monsoon
monsoon

Dolabari, NERIWALM & Tribeni - Average Water Quality


Dolabari, NERIWALM & Tribeni - Average Water Quality
Significant TDS Fluctuation During Monsoon
Period

Aambagan – Good Water Quality


Aambagan – Good Water Quality
Hardness Variation Is Significant During
Sampling Period
Conclusion

Parowa Chariali, Parowa Gaon, Kabristhan & TU Main Gate - Good Water Quality
Parowa Chariali turbidity rises during the post
Parowa Chariali turbidity rises during the post
monsoon periods at unacceptable levels
monsoon periods at unacceptable levels

Fluoride Content Of Water Samples From All The Stations


Fluoride Content Of Water Samples From All The Stations
Lie Within The Range As Suggested By W.H.O Guidelines
Lie Within The Range As Suggested By W.H.O Guidelines
During The Last Leg Of Sampling Period
During The Last Leg Of Sampling Period
Fluoride Shows An Increasing Trend
Fluoride Shows An Increasing Trend
Thank you