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Lecture 3

Planning, Writing, Revising

Plan, Write, Revise
To write efficiently, one must plan his/her
approach, namely:
-what does the receiver need to know about
the topic?
-when must the receiver receive it?
-what will happen if receiver did not receive

To do a research, one should look into formal

and informal research methods:
-search manually
-access electronically
-go direct to the source
Plan, Write, Revise
-conduct specific experiments
-look in the files
-talk with his/her boss/employer
-interview target audience
-conduct informal survey
-brainstorm for ideas

To organize data:
-develop an outline: direct pattern or indirect
-direct pattern: save reader’s time, set
proper frame of mind, prevent frustration
Plan, Write, Revise
-indirect pattern: respect feelings of
audience, encourages fair hearing, minimize
negative reaction

To arrange for effective sentences, you must

-punctuating a sentence fragment
-do a run-on (fused) sentence
-comma-splice sentence
-sentence of 20 or more words
Plan, Write, Revise
How to bring out emphasis:
-through mechanics: by underlining,
italics/boldface, all CAPS
-through style: vivid words, label the main
idea, place important idea in independent

How to revise thoroughly

-eliminate wordy prepositional phrases:
careful manner replaced with carefully
-eliminate long lead-ins: long introduction
with short concise information
-eliminate needless adverbs: don’t use very,
indefinitely, extremely, really.
Plan, Write, Revise
-avoid the monotony of unintentionally
repeated words: many of the chances given
replaced with chances given
-avoid redundant words: adequately
enough, grateful thanks
-avoid using words that repeat meaning: past
history, red in color, true facts
-only use jargon with individuals who
understands it
-slang should be avoided in business writing
-keep clichés to the minimum