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* King George I from the German House of Hanover
took over after the death of Queen Anne
* The time of industrial and agricultural revolution
* The growing British Empire was a ready market
* New agricultural process forced people to the cities
to find work.
* More poeple live in America
* For Augustans, the head controls the heart.
* Feelings and imagination were dangerous.
* The American Declaration of Independence in 1776 led
to a new mood of freedom
* The new mood was a threat to the stability of the
British society
* Drama became less important after the Theatres
Licencing Act of 1737
* Novel became more and more iimportant.
* Journalism and magazines reflected the opinion of the
new midlle classes.
* Although novel was not regarded by serious critics,
there was a growing market among the middle classes,
especially among ladies.
* Woman have always written a lot of fiction
* Women was also the greatest part of the readership, as a
market for the new professional writers

Aphra Behn
* She wrote thirty novels which includes her Love Letters
between a Noblemen and his Sister, a novel in the form of
letters (epistolary novel). Her other famous work is
Oroonoko, a phylosopical novel.
* She was not afraid of controversy, enjoy her role as a
speaker for women’s rights and sexual freedom.
* However, she was an outsider, her novels were not well
considered by later critics.
Mary de la Riviere
Her novels were hugely popular in her own lifetime;
yet, ignored by later critics.
She brought political satire found in Dryden’s great
She used false names for real characters.
Her novels tell about the struggles between women in
* Produced many great works
* A journalist for many years before the publish of
Robinson Crusoe in 1719.
* Robinson Crusoe was an immediate success. In which,
Defoe introduces a first-erson narrator. It is inspired by
the story of Alexander Selkirk
* A Journal of the Plagues Year in 1722 describes the
plague in London in a journalistic way
* Moll Flanders in 1722 tells about the story of a
prostitute who has reformed and changed her life. It
tells the moral point of living.
* A great writer of satire
* His early satire is The Battle of the Books, describes the
differences between the Ancients and the Moderns.
* Gulliver’s Travels is his stronger satire against what he
saw as being wrong in the world. The novel is in four
* His view of life was seen as pessimistic and against the
mood of the times that he was not taken seriously.
* He is also a great writer and a poet of great range.
* A writer who commented on society but was not
* Samuel Richardson
-. Met enormous approval from his readers.
-. He created typical heroin of the age in Pamela.
-. Clarissa is an epistolary novel.

Henry Fielding
-. Stopped writing for the theatre in 1737, and turned to
-. Fielding examined male point of view.
-. His Joseph Andrew and Tom Jones are his best-known
-. His purpose is ‘to defend what is good by displaying the
ridiculous. Teh plots show the strength and weaknesses of
human nature.
* After Richardso and Fielding, novel became a rich and
varied genre.
* There were many women writers: Charlotte Lennox,
Eliza aywood, Sarah Fielding
* Horace Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto introduced
Gothic novel.
* In Edmund Burke’s essay The Sublime and the
Beautiful, he states that the kind of pleasure from
gothic as ‘a sort of delightful horror’.

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