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Chapter 12.

Air Pollution Control

CIEG 331
Introduction to Environmental
Engineering
Air Pollution Control

• Gaseous
• Particulates
Gaseous Pollutants
• Absorption
• Adsorption
• Combustion
Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD)

• Non-regenerative: non-recovery and reuse


of chemical reagents
• Regenerative: recovery and reuse of
chemical reagents
Non-regenerative systems
• Chemicals: lime, limestone, caustic soda,
soda ash, ammonia
– SO2 + CaCO3 ---> CaSO3 + CO2
– SO2 + Ca(OH)2 ---> CaSO3 + H2O
– CaSO3 + 1/2 O2 ---> CaSO4
• Types
– Wet
– Dry
Wet Type
• Venturi
• Static packed
• Moving bed
• Tray tower
• Spray towers
Vertical Venturi Scrubber
Packed Bed Scrubber
Dry Scrubber System

http://www.fkinc.com/dirctspraydry.htm#top
Control Technologies for Nitrogen
Oxides
• Preventive • Post combustion
– minimizing operating – selective catalytic reduction
temperature – selective non-catalytic
– fuel switching reduction
– low excess air – non-selective catalytic
– flue gas recirculation reduction
– lean combustion
– staged combustion
– low Nox burners
– secondary combustion
– water/steam injection
Particulate Pollutants
• Cyclone
• Filter
• Liquid scrubbing
• Electrostatic precipitation (ESP)
Cyclone
B
1
 9 B 2 H 
2

d 0 .5  
  p Q g  

 2 L1  L2 
H

d0.5 = cut diameter at 50% removal De


H
 = dynamic viscosity of gas, Pa-s
L1
B = width, m
H = height, m L3
D2
p = particle density, kg/m3
Qg = gas flow rate, m3/s
 = effective number of turns
L2

Dd
For standard Cyclone:
B = 0.25 D2 = 0.13 m
Ex. 6-9
H = 0.5 D2 = 0.25 m
Given:
L1 = L2 = 2 D2 = 1 m
D2 = 0.5 m
Qg = 4 m3/s

T = 25 oC  2(1)  1  37.7
p = 800 kg/m3 0.25
Q = What is the removal efficiency
h = 0.95
for particles with ave
diameter of 10 m?
0.5
 9(18.5 x10 )(0.13) (0.25) 
6 2
d 0.5    2.41x10 6
 (800)( 4)( 37.7 ) 
 2.41( m)
d 10
@ d =10 m   4.15
d 0.5 2.41
Cyclone Installation at Wood Working Plant
http://www.fkinc.com/cyclones.htm
Air Filtration
Case A: Pore blocking
Case B: Pore plugging
Case C1: Pore narrowing
Case C2: Pore narrowing w/lost pore
Case D: Pore bridging
Air Filtration
• Impaction
• Diffusion
• Straining (Interception)
• Electrostatics
Air Filter
• High removal
efficiency for
< 5 m
particles
Scrubber
• Venturi
ESP
ESP

http://www.powerspancorp.com/news/precipitator.shtml
http://www.ppcbio.com/ppcdespwhatis.htm