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GEC320

Matrices, Jacobi &

Gauss-Siedel

Matrix algebra has at least two advantages:

•Reduces complicated systems of equations to

simple expressions

•Adaptable to systematic method of mathematical

treatment and well suited to computers

Definition:

A matrix is a set or group of numbers arranged in a

square or rectangular array enclosed by two

brackets

4 2 a b

1 1 3 0 c d

Properties:

•A specified number of rows and a specified

number of columns

•Two numbers (rows x columns) describe the

dimensions or size of the matrix.

Examples:

3x3 matrix 1 2 4

2x4 matrix

4 1 5 1 1

3 3

1 1

3 3 3 0 0 3 2

1x2 matrix

A matrix is denoted by a bold capital letter and the

elements within the matrix are denoted by lower case

letters

e.g. matrix [A] with elements aij

mA

n a a ... a

a2 n

21 22 ij

am1 am 2 aij amn

i goes from 1 to m

j goes from 1 to n

TYPES OF MATRICES

The number of rows may be any integer but the number of

columns is always 1

1 a11

4 1 a21

3

2

am1

TYPES OF MATRICES

Any number of columns but only one row

1 1 6 0 3 5 2

TYPES OF MATRICES

3. Rectangular matrix

Contains more than one element and number of rows is not

equal to the number of columns

1 1

3 7 1 1 1 0 0

2 0 3 3 0

7 7

7 6

mn

TYPES OF MATRICES

4. Square matrix

The number of rows is equal to the number of columns

(a square matrix A has an order of m)

mxm

1 1 1 1 1

9 9 0

3 0

6 6 1

The principal or main diagonal of a square matrix is composed of all

elements aij for which i=j

TYPES OF MATRICES

5. Diagonal matrix

A square matrix where all the elements are zero except those

on the main diagonal

3 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 3 0

0

0 2 0

0 0 5 0

0 0 1

0 0 0 9

i.e. aij =0 for all i = j

aij = 0 for some or all i = j

TYPES OF MATRICES

A diagonal matrix with ones on the main diagonal

1 0 0 0

0

1 0 0 1 0 aij 0

0 0 0 1 0

0 1 aij

0 0 0 1

i.e. aij =0 for all i = j

aij = 1 for some or all i = j

TYPES OF MATRICES

All elements in the matrix are zero

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0

0 0 0

TYPES OF MATRICES

8. Triangular matrix

A square matrix whose elements above or below the main

diagonal are all zero

1 0 0 1 0 0 1 8 9

2 1 0 2 1 0 0 1 6

5 2 3 5 2 3 0 0 3

TYPES OF MATRICES

A square matrix whose elements below the main

diagonal are all zero

1 7 4 4

aij aij aij 1 8 7 0

0 1 8 1 7 4

0 aij aij

0

0 0 7 8

0 aij 0 0 3

0 0 0 3

i.e. aij = 0 for all i > j

TYPES OF MATRICES

all zero

aij 0 0 1 0 0

2 1 0

aij aij 0

aij aij aij 5 2 3

i.e. aij = 0 for all i < j

TYPES OF MATRICES

9. Scalar matrix

A diagonal matrix whose main diagonal elements are

equal to the same scalar

A scalar is defined as a single number or constant

aij 0 0 1 0 0 6 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 aij 0

6 0 0

0 aij 0 0 1

0 0 0 6 0

i.e. aij = 0 for all i = j 0 0 0 6

aij = a for all i = j

Matrices

Matrix Operations

Matrices - Operations

EQUALITY OF MATRICES

Two matrices are said to be equal only when all

corresponding elements are equal

Therefore their size or dimensions are equal as well

1 0 0 1 0 0

A= 2 1 0 B= 2 1 0 A=B

5 2 3 5 2 3

Matrices - Operations

Some properties of equality:

•IIf A = B, then B = A for all A and B

•IIf A = B, and B = C, then A = C for all A, B and C

A= 2 1 0 B= b

21 b22 b23

5 2 3 b31 b32 b33

Matrices - Operations

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF MATRICES

size yields a matrix C of the same size

Matrices of different sizes cannot be added or subtracted

Matrices - Operations

Commutative Law:

A+B=B+A

Associative Law:

A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C = A + B + C

7 3 1 1 5 6 8 8 5

2 5 6 4 2 3 2 7 9

A B C

2x3 2x3 2x3

Matrices - Operations

A+0=0+A=A

A + (-A) = 0 (where –A is the matrix composed of –aij as elements)

6 4 2 1 2 0 5 2 2

3 2 7 1 0 8 2 2 1

Matrices - Operations

SCALAR MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

element)

Let k be a scalar quantity; then

kA = Ak

3 1

2 1

A

2 3

4 1

Matrices - Operations

3 1 3 1 12 4

2 1 2 1 8 4

4 4

2 3 2 3 8 12

4 1 4 1 16 4

Properties:

• k (A + B) = kA + kB

• (k + g)A = kA + gA

• k(AB) = (kA)B = A(k)B

• k(gA) = (kg)A

Matrices - Operations

MULTIPLICATION OF MATRICES

Two matrices A and B must be conformable for multiplication to

be possible

i.e. the number of columns of A must equal the number of rows

of B

Example.

A x B = C

(1x3) (3x1) (1x1)

Matrices - Operations

B x A = Not possible!

(2x1) (4x2)

A x B = Not possible!

(6x2) (6x3)

Example

A x B = C

(2x3) (3x2) (2x2)

Matrices - Operations

b11 b12

a11 a12 a13 c11 c12

a b21 b22

21 a22 a23

b31 b32 c21 c22

(a11 b12 ) (a12 b22 ) (a13 b32 ) c12

(a21 b11 ) (a22 b21 ) (a23 b31 ) c21

(a21 b12 ) (a22 b22 ) (a23 b32 ) c22

column multiplication

Matrices - Operations

4 8

1 2 3 (1 4) (2 6) (3 5) (1 8) (2 2) (3 3)

4 2 7 6 2 (4 4) (2 6) (7 5) (4 8) (2 2) (7 3)

5 3

31 21

63 57

Remember also:

IA = A

0 1 63 57

63 57

Matrices - Operations

Assuming that matrices A, B and C are conformable for

the operations indicated, the following are true:

1. AI = IA = A

2. A(BC) = (AB)C = ABC - (associative law)

3. A(B+C) = AB + AC - (first distributive law)

4. (A+B)C = AC + BC - (second distributive law)

Caution!

1. AB not generally equal to BA, BA may not be conformable

2. If AB = 0, neither A nor B necessarily = 0

3. If AB = AC, B not necessarily = C

Matrices - Operations

AB not generally equal to BA, BA may not be conformable

1 2

T

5 0

3 4

S

0 2

1 2 3 4 3 8

TS

5 0 0 2 15 20

3 4 1 2 23 6

ST

0 2 5 0 10 0

Matrices - Operations

If AB = 0, neither A nor B necessarily = 0

1 1 2 3 0 0

0 0 2 3 0 0

Matrices - Operations

TRANSPOSE OF A MATRIX

If :

2 4 7

A 2 A 3

2x3 5 3 1

Then transpose of A, denoted AT is:

2 5

A 2 A

T 3T

4 3

7 1

aij a T

ji For all i and j

Matrices - Operations

To transpose:

Interchange rows and columns

The dimensions of AT are the reverse of the dimensions of A

2 4 7

A 2 A

3

2x3

5 3 1

2 5

A 3 A

T T2

4 3

3x2

7 1

Matrices - Operations

Properties of transposed matrices:

1. (A+B)T = AT + BT

2. (AB)T = BT AT

3. (kA)T = kAT

4. (AT)T = A

Matrices - Operations

1. (A+B)T = AT + BT

7 3 1 1 5 6 8 8 5 8 2

2 5 6 4 2 3 2 7 9 8 7

5 9

7 2 1 4 8 2

3 5 5 2 8 7

1 6 6 3 5 9

Matrices - Operations

(AB)T = BT AT

1

1 1 0 2

0 2 3 1 8 2 8

2

1 0

1 1 21 2 2 8

0 3

Matrices - Operations

SYMMETRIC MATRICES

A Square matrix is symmetric if it is equal to its

transpose:

A = AT

a b

A

b d

a b

A

T

b d

Matrices - Operations

affect the elements of the main diagonal

a b

A

c d

a c

A

T

b d

The identity matrix, I, a diagonal matrix D, and a scalar matrix, K,

are equal to their transpose since the diagonal is unaffected.

Matrices - Operations

INVERSE OF A MATRIX

Consider a scalar k. The inverse is the reciprocal or division of 1 by

the scalar.

Example:

k=7 the inverse of k or k-1 = 1/k = 1/7

Division of matrices is not defined since there may be AB = AC

while B = C

Instead matrix inversion is used.

The inverse of a square matrix, A, if it exists, is the unique matrix

A-1 where:

AA-1 = A-1 A = I

Matrices - Operations

Example:

3 1

A 2 A

2

2 1

1 1 1

A

2 3

Because:

1 1 3 1 1 0

2 3 2 1 0 1

3 1 1 1 1 0

2 1 2 3 0 1

Matrices - Operations

Properties of the inverse:

( AB) 1 B 1 A1

1 1

(A ) A

T 1 1 T

(A ) (A )

1 1 1

( kA) A

k

A square matrix that has an inverse is called a nonsingular matrix

A matrix that does not have an inverse is called a singular matrix

Square matrices have inverses except when the determinant is zero

When the determinant of a matrix is zero the matrix is singular

Matrices - Operations

DETERMINANT OF A MATRIX

required

Each square matrix A has a unit scalar value called the

determinant of A, denoted by det A or |A|

1 2

If A

6 5

1 2

then A

6 5

Matrices - Operations

If A = [A] is a single element (1x1), then the

determinant is defined as the value of the

element

Then |A| =det A = a11

If A is (n x n), its determinant may be defined in

terms of order (n-1) or less.

Matrices - Operations

MINORS

If A is an n x n matrix and one row and one

column are deleted, the resulting matrix is an

(n-1) x (n-1) submatrix of A.

The determinant of such a submatrix is called a

minor of A and is designated by mij , where i

and j correspond to the deleted

row and column, respectively.

mij is the minor of the element aij in A.

Matrices - Operations

eg.

a11 a12 a13

A a21 a22

a23

a31 a32 a33

Each element in A has a minor

Delete first row and column from A .

The determinant of the remaining 2 x 2 submatrix is the minor of

a11

a22 a23

m11

a32 a33

Matrices - Operations

Therefore the minor of a12 is:

a21 a23

m12

a31 a33

And the minor for a13 is:

a21 a22

m13

a31 a32

Matrices - Operations

COFACTORS

When the sum of a row number i and column j is even, cij = mij and

when i+j is odd, cij =-mij

c11 (i 1, j 1) (1)11 m11 m11

1 2

c12 (i 1, j 2) (1) m12 m12

1 3

c13 (i 1, j 3) (1) m13 m13

Matrices - Operations

DETERMINANTS CONTINUED

The determinant of A is therefore the sum of the products of the

elements of the first row of A and their corresponding cofactors.

(It is possible to define |A| in terms of any other row or column

but for simplicity, the first row only is used)

Matrices - Operations

Therefore the 2 x 2 matrix :

a11 a12

A

a21 a22

Has cofactors :

c11 m11 a22 a22

And:

c12 m12 a21 a21

And the determinant of A is:

Matrices - Operations

Example 1:

3 1

A

1 2

A (3)(2) (1)(1) 5

Matrices - Operations

For a 3 x 3 matrix:

a11 a12 a13

A a21 a22

a23

a31 a32 a33

The cofactors of the first row are:

a22 a23

c11 a22a33 a23a32

a32 a33

a21 a23

c12 (a21a33 a23a31 )

a31 a33

a21 a22

c13 a21a32 a22a31

a31 a32

Matrices - Operations

The determinant of a matrix A is:

Which by substituting for the cofactors in this case is:

Matrices - Operations

Example 2:

1 0 1

A 0 2 3

1 0 1

Matrices - Operations

ADJOINT MATRICES

order as A in which each element aij is replaced by its cofactor cij .

Example:

1 2

If A

3 4

4 3

The cofactor C of A is C

2 1

Matrices - Operations

The adjoint matrix of A, denoted by adj A, is the transpose of its

cofactor matrix

adjA C T

A(adj A) = (adjA) A = |A| I

Example:

1 2

A

3 4

A (1)( 4) (2)( 3) 10

4 2

adjA C T

3 1

Matrices - Operations

1 2 4 2 10 0

A(adjA) 10 I

3 4 3 1 0 10

4 2 1 2 10 0

(adjA) A 10 I

3 1 3 4 0 10

Matrices - Operations

USING THE ADJOINT MATRIX IN MATRIX INVERSION

Since

AA-1 = A-1 A = I

and

A(adj A) = (adjA) A = |A| I

then

1adjA

A

A

Matrices - Operations

Example

1 2

A= 3 4

1 1 4 2 0.4 0.2

A

10 3 1 0.3 0.1

To check AA-1 = A-1 A = I

1 2 0.4 0.2 1

1 0

AA I

3 4 0.3 0.1 0 1

1 0.4 0.2 1 2 1 0

A A I

0.3 0.1 3 4 0 1

Matrices - Operations

Example 2

3 1 1

A 2 1 0

1 2 1

The determinant of A is

|A| = (3)(-1-0)-(-1)(-2-0)+(1)(4-1) = -2

c11 (1), c12 (2), c13 (3),

c21 (1), c22 (4), c23 (7),

c31 (1), c32 (2), c33 (5),

Matrices - Operations

The cofactor matrix is therefore

1 2 3

C 1 4 7

1 2 5

so

1 1 1

adjA C T 2 4 2

3 7 5

and

1 1 1 0.5 0.5 0.5

1 adjA 1 1.0 2.0 1.0

A 2 4 2

A 2

3 7 5 1.5 3.5 2.5

Matrices - Operations

The result can be checked using

AA-1 = A-1 A = I

exist as there will not be a solution

Nonsingular matrices have non-zero determinants

Singular matrices have zero determinants

Matrix Inversion

Simple 2 x 2 case

Let

and

a b w x

1

A A

c d y z

A A-1 = I

then

a b w x 1 0

c d y z 0 1

Simple 2 x 2 case

Multiplying gives

aw by 1

ax bz 0

cw dy 0

cx dz 1

A ad bc

Simple 2 x 2 case

thus

1 aw

y

b

cw

y

d

1 aw cw

b d

d d

w

da bc A

Simple 2 x 2 case

ax

z

b

1 cx

z

d

ax 1 cx

b d

b b

x

da bc A

Simple 2 x 2 case

1 by

w

a

dy

w

c

1 by dy

a c

c c

y

ad cb A

Simple 2 x 2 case

bz

x

a

1 dz

x

c

bz 1 dz

a c

a a

z

ad bc A

Simple 2 x 2 case

So that for a 2 x 2 matrix the inverse can

be constructed in a simple fashion as

d b

A A 1 d b

1w x

A c a A c a

y z A

A

•Change sign in elements off main diagonal

•Divide resulting matrix by the determinant

Simple 2 x 2 case

Example

2 3

A

4 1

1 1 1 3 0.1 0.3

A

10 4 2 0.4 0.2

Check inverse

A-1 A=I

1 1 3 2 3 1 0

I

10 4 2 4 1 0 1

Matrices and Linear Equations

Linear Equations

Linear equations are common and important for survey

problems

Matrices can be used to express these linear equations and

aid in the computation of unknown values

Example

n equations in n unknowns, the aij are numerical

coefficients, the bi are constants and the xj are unknowns

a21x1 a22 x2 a2 n xn b2

an1 x1 an 2 x2 ann xn bn

Linear Equations

The equations may be expressed in the form

AX = B

where

a21 a22 a2 n x2 b2

A , X , and B

an1 an1 ann xn bn

Linear Equations

If the determinant is nonzero, the equation can be solved to

produce n numerical values for x that satisfy all the simultaneous

equations

To solve, pre-multiply both sides of the equation by A-1 which exists

because |A| = 0

A-1 AX = A-1 B

Now since

A-1 A = I

We get

X = A-1 B

X would be determined

Summarily, to obtain the inverse of a matrix:

2) Form a new matrix consisting of the cofactors of the elements in the

matrix

3) Form the transpose of the cofactors

Then the inverse of the original matrix is

Linear Equations

Example

3x1 x2 x3 2

2 x1 x2 1

x1 2 x2 x3 3

3 1 1 x1 2

2 1 0 x 1

2

1 2 1 x3 3

Linear Equations

When A-1 is computed the equation becomes

X A1 B 1.0 2.0 1.0 1 3

1.5 3.5 2.5 3 7

Therefore

x1 2,

x2 3,

x3 7

Linear Equations

The values for the unknowns should be checked by substitution

back into the initial equations

x1 2, 3x1 x2 x3 2

x2 3, 2 x1 x2 1

x3 7 x1 2 x2 x3 3

2 (2) (3) 1

(2) 2 (3) (7) 3

Write out the augmented matrix for the system of equations below and

obtain the values of the unknows by

1) Row operation method

2) Method of determinant

3) Matrix inversion method

Jacobi iteration

&

Gauss-Siedel

Jacobi iteration

a11x1 a12 x2 a1n xn b1 x10

a21x1 a22 x2 a2 n xn b2 0

x2

x

0

0

an1 x1 an 2 x2 ann xn bn xn

x11

1

(b1 a12 x20 a1n xn0 ) 1 i 1 n

a11

k 1

xi bi

aii

aij x aij x

k

j

k

j

1

j 1 j i 1

x12 (b2 a21 x10 a23 x30 a2 n xn0 )

a22

1

x1n (bn an1 x10 an 2 x20 ann1 xn01 )

ann

80

Example 1

4 1 1 x1 7 0

4 8 1 x 21

2 x 0 0

2 1 5 x3 15 0

7 x20 x30 7

x 1

1 1.75

4 4

21 4 x 0

x 0

21

x12 1 3

2.625

8 8

15 2 x 0

x 0

15

x31 1 2

3 .0

5 5

7 x1

x1

7 2.625 3

x1

2 2 3

1.65625

4 4

21 4 x1 x3 21 4 1.75 3

1 1

x2

2

3.875

8 8

15 2 x 1

x1

15 2 1.75 2.625

x3

2 1 2

4.225

5 5

7 3.875 4.225

x

3

1 1.6625

4

21 4 1.65625 4.225

x2

3

3.98125

8

15 2 1.65625 3.875

x3

3

2.8875

5

Matrix is diagonally dominant, Jacobi iterations are converging

Example 2

2 1 5 x1 15 0

4 8 1 x 21 x 0 0

2

4 1 1 x3 7 0

The matrix is not diagonally dominant

15 x 5 x

0 0

15

x

1

1

2 3

7.5

2 2

21 4 x 0

x 0

21

x2

1 1 3

2.625

8 8

x31 7 4 x10 x20 7.0 83

15 2.625 5 7

x

1

1 11.3125

2

21 4 7.5 7

x2

1

0.25

8

x3 7 4 7.5 2.625 39.625

1

diverging.

Note that the matrix is not diagonally dominant

84

Gauss-Seidel (GS) iteration

a11x1 a12 x2 a1n xn b1 x10

Use the latest a21x1 a22 x2 a2 n xn b2 0

x2

update x

0

0

an1 x1 an 2 x2 ann xn bn xn

x11

1

(b1 a12 x20 a1n xn0 ) 1 i 1 n

a11

k 1

xi bi

aii

a ij x k 1

j aij x k

j

1 j 1 j i 1

x12 (b2 a21 x11 a23 x30 a2 n xn0 )

a22

1

x1n (bn an1 x11 an 2 x12 ann1 x1n 1 )

ann

85

Example 1:

4 1 1 x1 7 0

4 8 1 x 21 0

2 x 0

2 1 5 x3 15 0

Diagonally dominant matrix

7 x 0

x 0

7

x1

1 2 3

1.75

4 4

21 4 x 1

x 0

21 4 1.75

x12 1 3

3.5

8 8

15 2 x1 x2

1 1

15 2 1.75 3.5

x3

1

3.0

5

7 x 1

x 1

7 3.5 3

x1

2 2 3

1.875

4 4

21 4 x1 x3

2 1

21 4 1.875 3

x2

2

3.9375

8 8

15 2 x 2

x 2

15 2 1.875 3.9375

x3

2 1 2

2.9625

5 5

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