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Family and Childhood

Dr. Jose Rizal is a unique example of a many-splendored genius who

became the greatest hero of a nation.
The Birth of a Hero
▪ Jose Rizal was born on the moonlit night of Wednesday,
June 19, 1861 in the lakeshore town of Calamba, Laguna.
▪ His name “Jose” was chosen by his mother who was a
devotee of the Christian saint San Jose (St. Joseph)
▪ He was baptized in the Catholic Church of his town on June
22, aged three days old, by the parish priest Father Rufino
Collantes. His godfather was Father Pedro Casanas, a close
friend of the Rizal family.
▪ Father Collantes was impressed by the baby’s big head and
said “Take good care of this child, for someday he will
become a great man”.
Rizal’s Parents

Francisco Mercado Rizal

Rizal’s Parents

Francisco Mercado Rizal Teodora Alonso Realonda

(1818-1898) (1826-1911)
Francisco Mercado Rizal

▪ Born in Binan, Laguna on May 11,1818

▪ He studied Latin and Philosophy in at the College of San
Jose in Manila.
▪ He moved to Calamba and became a tenant-farmer of the
Dominican-owned hacienda.
▪ He died in Manila on January 5,1898, at the age of 80.
▪ Rizal affectionately called him “a model of fathers”.
Teodora Alonso Realonda

▪ Born in Manila on November 8,1826.

▪ She studied at the College of Santa Rosa, a well-known
college for girls in the city.
▪ She died in Manila on August 16,1911 , at the age of 85.
▪ Rizal lovingly said of her: “My mother is a woman of more
than ordinary culture; she knows literature and speaks
Spanish better than I. She corrected my poems and gave
me good advice when I was studying rhetoric. She is a
mathematician and has read many books”.
▪ It is said that her family was a descendant of Lakan-Dula,
the last native king of Tondo.
The Rizal Children

God blessed the marriage of Francisco Rizal and

Teodora Realonda with eleven children. Two boys and
nine girls.
Saturnina (1850-1913)
Oldest of the Rizal children, nicknamed
Neneng; she married Manuel T. Hidalgo
of Tanawan Batangas

Paciano (1851-1930)
Older brother and confidant of Jose
Rizal; after his younger brother’s
execution, he joined the Philippine
Revolution and became a combat
general. He died an old bachelor on
April 13, 1930, aged 79.
Narcisa (1852-1939)
Her pet name was Sisa. She was a
teacher and a musician. She married
Antonio Lopez, a school teacher in

Olimpia (1855-1887)
Her pet name was Ypia. She
married Silvestre Ubaldo, a
telegraph operator from Manila.
Lucia (1857-1919)
She married Mariano Herbosa. Herbosa died of
cholera and was denied Christian burial because
he was the brother-in-law of Dr. Jose Rizal.

Maria (1859-1945)
Biang was her nickname; she married Daniel Faustino
Jose Rizal (1861-1896)
The greatest Filipino hero and peerless
genius. His nickname was Pepe.

Concepcion (1862-1865)
Her pet name was Concha; she died of
sickness at the age of 3. Her death was
Rizal’s first sorrow.
Josefa (1865-1945)
Her pet name was Panggoy; she died an old maid
in 1945, aged 80.

Trinidad (1868-1951)
Her pet name was Trining; she died also an old
maid in 1951 aged 83.
Soledad (1870-1929)
Her pet name was Choleng; she married Pantaleon
Soledad (1870-1929)
Her pet name was Choleng; she married Pantaleon

Sibling relationship among the Rizal children was

affectionately cordial. Years later when Jose Rizal grew,
he always called them Doña or Señora (if married) and
Señorita (if single).
The Rizal Surname – given by Spanish alcalde mayor of Laguna, who was a family

A Good and Middle-Class Family – the Rizal family belonged to the principalia, a
town aristocracy in the Philippines. It was one of the distinguished families in

Home Life of the Rizals – the Rizal family had a simple, contented and happy life.
When the children got into mischief, they were given a sound spanking. Evidently
they believed in the maxim: “Spare the rod and spoil the child”.

Un Recuerdo A Mi Pueblo (In Memory of My Town) – a poem written by Rizal

about his beloved town when he was 15 years old.
Earliest Childhood

▪ The Heroes First Sorrow – of his sisters, Rizal loved most

the little Concha. Unfortunately, she died of sickness when
she was only three years old. Jose cried bitterly “I lost my
little sister Concha, and then for the first time I shed tears
caused by love and grief”.
▪ Devoted Son of the Church – at the age of three, he began
to take part in the family prayers. When he was five years
old, he was able to read haltingly the Spanish family bible.
▪ Artistic Talents – at the age of five, he began to make
sketches and to mold in clay and wax objects.
• First Poem by Rizal – at the age of 8, he wrote his first poem in the native
language entitles “Sa Aking Mga Kababata (To My Fellow Children)”

• First Drama by Rizal – after writing his first poem, he wrote his first
dramatic work which was a Tagalog comedy. It was staged in a Calamba

• Rizal as Boy Magician - with his dexterous hands, he learned various

tricks. He also entertained his town folks with magic-lantern exhibtions.
Influences on the Hero’s
In the case of Rizal, he had all the favorable influences, few
other children in his lifetime enjoyed
1.Hereditary Influence
▪ Malayan Ancestors – love fore freedom, innate desire to travel,
indomitable courage.
▪ Chinese Ancestors – serious nature, frugality, patience, and love
for children.
▪ Spanish Ancestors – elegance of bearing, sensitivity to insult,
gallantry to ladies.
▪ From his Father – profound sense of self-respect, the love for
work and the habit of independent thinking.
▪ From his Mother – religious nature, the spirit of self sacrifice,
and the passion for arts and literature.
2.Environmental Influence
▪ Paciano – instilled in his mind the love for freedom and justice.
▪ From his Sisters – he learned to be courteous and kind to women.
▪ Aya (nanny) – fairytales that awakened his interest in folklore and
▪ Tio Jose Alberto – inspired him to develop his artistic ability.
▪ Tio Manuel – encouraged him to develop his frail body by means of
physical exercise, including horse riding, walking and
▪ Tio Gregorio – intensified his voracious reading of good books.
▪ Father Leoncio Lopez – fostered Rizal’s love for scholarship and
intellectual honesty.
3.Aid of Divine Providence – God endowed him with the
versatile gifts of genius, the vibrant spirit of nationalist, and
the valiant heart to sacrifice for a noble cause.
▪ Characterized by four R's -- reading, writing, arithmetic, and
▪ First private tutor, Maestro Celestino, and the second, Maestro
Lucas Padua.
▪ June 1869, Jose left Calamba for Biñan.
▪ Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz, his teacher in Biñan.
▪ December 17, 1870, Jose left Biñan. (steamer: Talim)
▪ Escuela Pia (Charity School) was established by the city
government in 1817.

Escuela Pia Ateneo Municipal Ateneo de Manila

Jesuits System of Education
Students were divided into two groups:

▪ Roman Empire: internos (boarders)

▪ Carthaginian Empire: externos (non-boarders)
Tribune Red
(Roman Empire)
Centurion (Carthaginian Empire)
▪ 1874 - Rizal began to take interest in reading romantic novels.

▪ June 16, 1875 - Rizal became an interno.

▪ Fr. Francisco de Paula Sanchez

▪ “the pride of the Jesuits”

▪ 1877 - graduated Ateneo with highest honors.

▪ Rizal graduated with highest honors in Ateneo and moved to UST for
higher studies.
▪ April 1877 - Rizal enrolled in UST taking the course on Philosophy and
▪ During his first year term ( 1877-1878) he studied Cosmology,
Metaphysics, Theodicy, and History of Philosophy.
▪ 1878 - 1879 - Rizal received Ateneo Rector's advice to take up medicine.
▪ 1878 - Rizal finishes Surveying Course in Ateneo, but was not
granted the title as surveyor due to below age, not until November
▪ He frequently visited Ateneo and continued to participate actively
in the Ateneo's extra-curricular activities.
▪ He was the president of the Academy of Spanish Literature and
and secretary of the Academy of Natural Sciences.
▪ Rizal became a victim of Spanish officer's brutality.

▪ “To the Filipino Youth” / A La Juventud Filipina ( 1879 ) was the title of
Rizal's poem that he submitted in a literary contest in Artistic-Literary

▪ “The Council of Gods” / El Consejo de los Dioses ( 1880 ) was Rizal's

entry to the Artistic-Literary Lyceum when they opened another literary
contest to commemorate the fourth centennial of the death of the
Spain's glorified man-of-letters and famous writer of Don Quixote,
▪ December 8, 1880 - Rizal produced a zarzuela called Junto al
Pasig / “Beside the Pasig” on the occasion of the annual
celebration of the Feast Day of the Immaculate Conception,
Patroness of Ateneo.
▪ 1880 - he wrote a sonnet entitled A Filipinas for the album of the
Society of Sculptors.
▪ 1881 - Al M.R,P Pablo Ramon
Memorias of Young Jose Rizal
“To foretell the destiny of a nation, it is necessary
to open the book that tells of her past”
- Dr. Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda