You are on page 1of 55

SOC SCI 426

GENERAL SOCIOLOGY
WITH FAMILY PLANNING
THE SCIENCE OF SOCIOLOGY
• Sociology is derived from the Latin word
SOCIOS meaning companion with others;
and the Greek word LOGOS meaning study
of reason to describe the new science of
social life
• Sociology is defined as the scientific
study of human interaction and the
product of such an interaction in a given
society
• Sociology is concerned with social
interaction involving social acts, social
relationships, social organizations,
social structures and social processes
• The emphasis of sociology is on the
social behavior of the individual within
the context of his or her social group or
society
• Sociology is the study of people in a
given environment
AS SOCIAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINE, SOCIOLOGY IS
RELATED TO ALLIED DISCIPLINES LIKE:
• Anthropology the study of humanity and the
similarities and diversity of cultures
- two (2) main divisions in the study of
anthropology
a) Biological or Physical Anthropology
– the study of wide range of
cultures, from primitive to modern,
through the examination of
artifacts and genetics
- the study of past and present
evolution
b) Cultural or Social Anthropology
- the study of tribes, sub cultures, or society
as a whole
- concerned with the study of total societies
and includes systems, beliefs, customs,
languages, politics and many other related
topics
• Geography – originated from the Greek word
GEOGRAPHIA meaning earth description;
- the study of the physical features of the
earth and its human activity
- geography’s sub interests:
1. physical geography – the study of
land and water features
2. human geography – study of the way
human beings live in their physical and
cultural environment
3. Systematic geography – keeps the entire
world in view while investigating a single
element like landform or climate
4. Regional geography – focuses attention on
particular region or country

• Psychology – the study or science of


mind and behavior
- mainly interested in a wide
range of mental,
psychological and behavioral
process

• Economics – the study of the economic life


of human beings and focuses
primarily on wealth
• Political Science – the study of political
behavior of human beings that focuses
on various aspects of government,
political institutions and political
parties
• History – primarily interested in the study
of past events of human beings
• Humanities – the science that contains
records of man’s experiences,
sentiments, its expression of man’s
feelings and thoughts
FORERUNNERS OF SOCIOLOGY

- Sociology as a science owes its present


esteemed status to the following people who
contributed much to its development :

AUGUSTE COMTE (1798 – 1857)


- Father of Sociology
- French Philosopher believed in applying
scientific method to study of society and social
relations
FOUNDER OF SOCIOLOGY – AUGUSTE COMTE
HARRIET MARTINEAU (1802 – 1876)
- English sociologist, translated Comte’s works
- She was a feminist (the belief that men and
woman should have equal rights and
opportunities)
HERBERT SPENCER (1820 - 1903)
- Had an “organismic” view of the nature of
society
- He saw society as a living organism with
specific parts or organs, each performing
specific functions
EMILE DURKHEM (1858 – 1917)
- His worthwhile contributions to
sociology are the study of groups; his
theoretical work in suicide, the aspects
of social behavior on the areas of crime
and punishment,
religion and
the workplace
MAX WEBER (1864 – 1920)
- A German sociologist,
encouraged his students
to use verstehen (means
understanding human
behavior)
- Focuses on social life and
human behavior from the standpoint of the
individuals involved in day-to-day interaction
KARL MARX (1818 – 1883)
- A German sociologist and philosopher,
emphasized on group identifications that
influence an individual’s place in society
GEORG SIMMEL (1858 – 1918)
- A German philosopher; recognized,
designated and analysed the impact of
social differentiation, expansion of social
groups and other developmental
and environmental influences in
the development of the human
personality
THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGY IN THE
PHILIPPINES

FR. VALENTIN MARIN – instigated the


teaching of sociology as separate
discipline at the UST in 1896

PROF. A.E.W. SALT and UP President,


MURRAY BARTLETT – initiated the
first organized course in sociology
at UP in 1911
DEAN CONRADO BENITEZ – the first
Filipino to teach sociology at UP;
followed by SERAFIN MACARAIG
CLYDE E. HEFLIN – introduced
sociology at the Siliman University
in 1919
FELIPE GAMBOA – taught sociology
at the Philippine Women’s
University in 1938
Up to the 1950’s the social philosophy
perspective was used in teaching
sociology
SERAFIN MACARAIG – the first Filipino
to obtain a Ph.D. in sociology from the
University of Wisconsins, introduced
the social problem orientation in the
teaching of sociology in 1920
Sociology was considered one of the
requirements in the General Education
Curriculum (GEC) and was offered in
college as a course

Importance of Sociology
 sociology is important because its study
allows us to obtain information about society
and the different aspects of life in a factual
manner
 the most important function of sociology,
however, is when superstitions and
misinformation are replaced by accurate
knowledge about human behavior

 SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY
Human beings interact with each other in
social units such as family, school, church,
government, community and others; this
interaction called SOCIAL ACTION and is
the prime concern of sociological inquiry
SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY – is the
systematic analysis of the
motivations and behavior of
individuals within groups , and the
study of social groups as a whole
SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY PROCEDURE

1. Defining the problem


2. Gathering data
data can be classified as:
a. Primary sources – eyewitness; may be
documents, remains or relics or oral
testimonies
b. Secondary sources – reports of
individuals who relates the testimony
3. Analysing data
4. Verifying data

Methodological designs, techniques


and tools used in sociological inquiry:
a. Sample survey method
b. Case study method
c. Cohort study method
d. Interview
- two types of interview
1. nonstructured interview – the
interviewee or the respondent guides
the conversation
2. structured / direct interview –
questions is previously written down;
interviewer records the answers
e. Questionnaire
f. Quasi-experimental method–(age, sex, IQ, EQ)
g. Participatory research (utilizes the people
who are the target of development)
CULTURE
Ways of living built up by a human
group and transmitted to succeeding
generations
The integrated pattern of human
knowledge, belief, and behavior that
depends upon the capacity for
learning and transmitting knowledge
to succeeding generations
CULTURE SHOCK – refers to the
unpleasant or disoriented feeling one
experiences when he goes to a new
environment
- Initial reactions for being culture
shocked are:
a. Anxiety
b. Stress
c. Frustration
d. Dismay
- Accompanying symptoms of culture shock
are:
a. Fear of being alone
b. Loneliness
c. Being contaminated by viruses
d. Feeling of being laughed at or cheated
- An individual may experience culture
shock in his own country (probinsyano,
OFW in other countries)
ELEMENTS OF CULTURE
1. VALUES – providing directions on
what is good or bad and right and
wrong

2. BELIEFS – people of modern age


technology still consider, consult
and depend upon a body of beliefs
for courses of action
- society’s beliefs, which are composed
of fables (legendary story)
superstitions, proverbs (saying,
kasabihan), myths, folklore (tradition)
are influenced by members’ attitudes,
emotions and values
3. NORMS – are unquestionable
standards of what society considers as
good and proper for special behavior
- etiquette, speech, facial expressions
and mannerisms are part of society’s
norms
- Two types of norms:
a. Prescriptive norms- are those which
are right, legal, ethical, good,
proper, moral and appropriate
b. Proscriptive norms- are those are
unethical, wrong, bad, immoral,
illegal, inappropriate and improper
4. LANGUAGE – considered the most
important channel of communication
- Symbol is something or anything that
represents something else; numbers,
words, marks, colors, emblems and
designs
5. FOLKWAYS – are customs, habits,
and repetitive patterns of expected
behavior (courtship, dating)
6. MORES – carry moral or ethical
values and are the results of long
established customs (ear-piercing and
circumcision)
- a large part of mores consists of
taboos; taboos are forbidden or
prohibited acts (incest, child abuse
and prostitution)
- Ostracism is the punishment for
violating mores
7. LAWS – are formalized norms
sanctioned by the state; most common
example of law is the constitution
8. MATERIAL CULTURE – refers to the
physical objects made by men
- In primitive societies, an example is
the bow and arrow
- The cellular phone is the material
culture of today’s modern technology
9. TECHNOLOGY – refers to the
techniques and knowledge in utilizing
raw materials to produce foods, tools,
clothing, shelter, means of
transportation and weapon
CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE
1. Culture is shared – social
interaction is made meaningful by
the shared beliefs, values and
expectations of people
2. Culture is a group product - culture
is the result of a group’s habits and
experiences, passed on the
succeeding generations for
posterity
3. Culture is learned – man acquires
culture through learning via language
and writing, enabling them to pass this
to succeeding generations
4. Culture is transmitted from
generation to generation
5. Culture is patterned and integrated
– conformity between ideal norms
and actual behavior
6. Culture is adaptive and maladaptive
– adaptive when used by man to make
the environment viable for stable
economy; maladaptive when scarce
resources are destroyed or depleted
7. Culture is compulsory – members of
the group must follow the group’s
culture if they wish to be in harmony
with one another
8. Culture is cumulative – passes
knowledge to the succeeding
generations
9. Culture is dynamic – culture is
never in permanent state; today’s
practices may no longer be
applicable in the future
10.Culture is diverse – each culture is
different
Development of Culture
1. INNOVATION – is the introduction of a
new ideal or object to a culture;
- Two forms of innovation:
a. discovery
b. Invention (experimentation)
2. DIFFUSION – refer to the process by
which a cultural item is spread from group
to group (smoking tobacco originated in
Indian tribe, rap)
FILIPINO VALUE SYSTEM
VALUES – value comes from the Latin word
valere meaning strong and vigorous
- According to Jocano “ values are
concepts which we use a points of
reference or criteria for recognizing,
expressing and evaluating social realities
in the environment in terms of their
desirability, importance, significance,
worth, quality, merit, price and usefulness
to us.
- Filipino values can be translated as
buti, pamantayan, halaga and
ganda

SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE- refers to the


way of life of Filipinos as recognized
or acknowledge by their fellowmen
and social group
- Filipinos are highly sensitive that they
do not tolerate confrontation, instead
they resort to ways just to be accepted
such as pakikisama, euphemism, the
use of a go-between to preserve or
restore smooth interpersonal relations
(SIR) and pakiramdam
PAKIKISAMA – the ability to get along
with others in such a way as to avoid
signs of conflict

EUPHEMISM – stating an unpleasant


truth, opinion or request as pleasantly
as possible; in order not to offend
others, direct, harsh and brutal words
must be avoided
RESTORE SMOOTH INTERPERSONAL
RELATIONS (SIR) – the use of a go-
between or middleman is a way of
social acceptance to avoid being
embarrassed in a face-to-face
confrontation that may bring about an
uncomfortable feeling of shame
PAKIKIRAMDAM – is a value affecting
the team’s spirit
END
OF
PRELIM