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Fundamentals of

Overview of Machining Processes
Note that the turning tool is mounted in an
unconventional way, only to explain ‘Orthogonal’
Animation of Orthogonal
Mechanics of chip formation…
Mechanics of orthogonal metal cutting

1. During metal cutting ,the metal is severely compressed in the area

in front of the cutting tool.
2. This causes high temperature shear, and plastic flow if the metal is
3. When the stress in the work piece just ahead of the cutting tool
reaches a value exceeding the ultimate strength of the metal,
particles will shear to form a chip element, which moves up along
the rake-face of the work.
4. The outward or shearing movement of each successive element is
arrested by work hardening and the movement transferred to the
next element.
5. The process is repetitive and a continuous chip is formed.
6. The plane along which the element shears, is called shear plane.
Schematic Illustration of
Orthogonal cutting
Orthogonal Cutting Model – Chip Thickness Ratio

r 

where r = chip thickness ratio; to = thickness of the chip

prior to chip formation; and tc = chip thickness after
 Chip thickness after cut should always be greater than before, so chip
ratio is always: less than 1

 - Tool rake angle

 C

to Back relief
 
to = AB sin Ø angle
Tc = AC is  to tool flank. find out BCA….
tc = AC = AB cos(Ø - ) Part being machined
sin 
r = to/ tc = AB sinØ / AB cos(Ø - ) r=
cos(   )
Determining Shear Plane Angle

 On rearranging r and  we have,

r cos 
tan  
1  r sin
r and  are measurable quantities.

Therefore, we can find out Ø by cutting trial experiments.

where r = chip ratio, and  = rake angle

Shear Strain in Chip Formation

ABD angle?90 - Φ

DBE angle? Φ

Strain   
 = tan( - ) + cot 
where  = shear strain,  = shear plane angle, and  = rake angle
Chip Formation

More realistic view of chip formation, showing shear zone rather

than shear plane. Also shown is the secondary shear zone resulting
from tool-chip friction.
Numerical problem:

 In a machining experiment that

approximates orthogonal cutting, the rake
angle is measured to be 10o, dc is set at
0.5mm. After machining, the chip thickness
was measured by a mic to be 1.125mm.
a) Find out the shear plane generated during
the cutting experiment.
b) Find out the shear strain experienced during
cutting trials. (normal machine elements are strained,
during operation, to 0.010 …..)
Solution to the numerical
 r = 0.444
 tanØ = 0.437/0.923
 Ø = 25.4o

 Shear strain ‫ = ע‬2.38. No units

Hmm.. This is
a severe
What are those independent variables which are
under our control, during this experiment?

 That means, what are those parameters we can set it ourselves or measure it
ourselves, physically, or ….?
 …. Imagine yourself and we discuss in class
 …., what we measure.
 What we make, measure and implement…..
Assumptions in orthogonal metal cutting

1. The cutting edge direction…..

2. Tool-Wpc mtl contact points. …...

3. flow of chips …. Width..

4. What is assumed to be uniform.

5. Chip type. …… Normally the machinist workmen or the Mfg

Engieer will not like this….

6. Equilibrium of forces & Collinear !!!!!