Proton Therapy

By: Alanna Kirkpatrick, Michael Mai, Corbin Osborne, and Matt Street

Purpose y To compare the effects of proton therapy and X-ray therapy for treating Cancer patients. y To compare the effectiveness of proton therapy with children vs. adults .

Wilson. suggested that proton beams could be used as a treatment method. who worked with nuclear bombs. 1988. a research particle accelerator was used for the first treatment. First hospital to use proton therapy was in California in 1990 Today there are 7 proton therapy centers and 5 under construction. 1954 in California. 1945.American physicist Robert R.FDA approved proton therapy for treating patients. .Background y 1919 Ernest Rutherford discovered the existence of the y y y y y proton.

Cost y Average cost per treatment ranges from $30K to $40K .

Example Cyclotron Facility .

When the protons come near the orbiting electrons of the atoms that make up the tumor the protons can pull off the electrons from their orbits effectively ionizing the atom. . The healthy cells can rebuild but the cancer cells can not. Both X-ray and Proton therapy work on the principle of selective destruction but proton therapy is more effective. It damages the DNA and keeps the bad cells from spreading.How it works y High dose of concentrated beam of proton is shot a the y y y y cancer tumor.

The Difference ‡Traditional X-Ray affects everything in its path which causes damage to healthy tissue cells. This allows higher doses to be delivered to the tumor. ‡Proton therapy has better precision and provides a lower dose to healthy tissue. the beam also continues through the patients body. .

. ‡Minimize entrance dose. organs at risk. or previously irradiated tissue.The Difference Cont. ‡Minimize integral dose. ‡Eliminate exit dose. ‡Spare normal tissue.

Spread out Bragg peak .Aiming for the tumor SOBP.

. ‡First slowed by electronic stoppingslowing down due to the inelastic collisions of electrons (coulomb force) ‡When it slows down it has more time to grab an electron which damages the cell through ionization.Physics ‡High velocity protons give up very little of their ionization energy.

How Cyclotrons Work Cyclotrons accelerate charged particles using a highfrequency. alternating voltage (potential difference). A perpendicular magnetic field causes the particles to spiral almost in a circle so that they re-encounter the accelerating voltage many times. .

. which saves both money and power. so the average power is relatively high. since more expense may be allocated to increasing efficiency. radiation shielding. such as its foundations. +Cyclotrons produce a continuous stream of particles at the target. -Can·t accelerate into relativistic speeds. and the enclosing building.Pros and Cons +Cyclotrons have a single electrical driver. +The compactness of the device reduces other costs.

alpha particles.Bethe formula describes the energy loss per distance travelled of swift charged particles (protons. atomic ions. but not electrons) traversing matter .

.Conclusion y Proton therapy was approved by the FDA in 1988 for the treatment of cancer y It cost between $30K and $40K y Proton therapy is better than x-ray therapy because it is a more precise dose and does not damage other healthy cells in its path.

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