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COMMUNITY BASED TOURISM

PLANNING
Subtopic
1. Understanding Tourism Planning
2. Reasons for tourism planning
3. Approaches To Tourism Planning
4. Factors for Effective Tourism Planning and
Development
5. Models for planning community based Tourism
6. Elements of community based Tourism Plan
Definition of Planning
Planning is a dynamic process of determining goals,
systematically selecting alternative courses of actions to
achieve those goals, implementing the chosen alternatives, and
evaluating the choice to determine if it is successful.

Tourism planning constitutes a process based on the study


and evaluation of resources that are available in the area and
the alternative solutions, in order to optimize tourism’s
contribution to human prosperity and environmental quality.
According to Getz (1987
Nature of tourism planning
Ideally, tourism planning is characterized by:
1. A basis in sound research;
2. The involvement of the local community in setting goals and
priorities;
3. A holistic approach, tourism plan has to include various
aspect related to tourism industry
4. Implementation by the public sector (government) in
partnership with the private sector (business).
Reasons for tourism Planning
Gunn (1994) in Mill and Morrison (2002) outlined reasons for
planning Tourism. These include;
• Tourism development has both negative and positive impacts
• Tourism is more competitive than ever before and there has
been a proliferation in the promotion of tourism destination
• Tourism is a more complicated phenomenon than it was
previously though to be.
• Tourism has damaged many natural and cultural resources
• Tourism affects everyone in a community and all people
involved in tourism should participate in tourism planning
process.
THE BROAD TRADITIONS OR APPROACHES TO
TOURISM PLANNING

Getz (1987) has described four traditions that have evolved


towards planning tourism, also Hall (2000) adds a
sustainable approach to tourism planning
1. Boosterism approach 1950
2. An economic-industry approach 1960
3. A physical-spatial approach 1970-1980
4. A community-oriented approach. 1990
5. A sustainable approach to tourism planning 1990
Boosterism approach
This approach focuses on developing destinations and the
related infrastructure and increasing numbers of visitors.
It does not consider potential negative, economic, social and
environmental impacts of tourism
Cultural and natural resources are regarded as objects to be
exploited for the sake of tourism development
Residents of tourists’ destination are not involved in the
decision-making and planning process.
Boosterism is still used by politicians who believe that
economic growth is always to be promoted through tourism
An economic, industry-oriented approach
This approach focuses on the focus on developing tourism as a
vehicle of growth for providing economic value. Maximization of
income, Employment multiplier

Tourism is seen as an industry


Government use tourism to promote growth and development
in specific areas
Use of marketing and promotion to attract the type of visitors
Limited attention is given to impacts of tourism
Satisfaction of visitors, positive attitudes towards tourists in host
communities not answered
A physical/spatial approach
This approach focuses on environment, and destinations are
marketed for their ability to maintain the environment (carrying
capacity) and pass these to next progeny.
Development defined in environmental terms
Ecological basis for development
Concentration or dispersal of visitors
Visitor management
Physical carrying capacity
Limited attention is given to social and cultural attributes of the
destination
A community-oriented approach
Community planning has two sub-approaches:
community participation in planning and stakeholder
collaborative planning
Enhancing their economic livelihoods while Protecting
and Preserving their cultural values and the natural
environment.
Under this approach, residents are regarded as the focal
point of the tourism planning exercise.
Sustainable tourism planning
approach
This approach focuses on the long-term future of
resources, the effects of economic development on the
environment, and its ability to meet present and future
needs.
Factors to Consider for Effective
Tourism Planning and Development
There are number of factors that need to be considered for
effective tourism planning and product development:
Tourism stakeholder involvement
National tourism policy and legislation
Availability and quality of tourism-related data
Talent planning expertise
Stages in the tourism area life cycle
Awareness of external forces
Financial capital requirement
Type and variety of tourism resources
COMMUNITY TOURISM PLANNING PROCESS
Community tourism planning is a process of producing
tourism plans that can be designed, implemented,
managed and maintained by local communities.
It insists two main aspects
Community participation
Stakeholder collaboration
Community tourism tends to develop in one of two
ways, each of which raises slightly different issues.
Retroactive tourism planning/ Demand-led Scenerio
Community tourism plan is developed as a response to
tourism, first the tourists visit area where community lives.
They offer accommodation because tourists and tour
operators ask them for this facility and because of
traditional rules of hospitality.
Communities will develop partnerships with those operators
who make the effort to consult them properly. It is also
demand-led scenario.
Proactive tourism planning /supply led scenario

Community based tourism developed before the demand,


Proactive community plan provides the necessary
infrastructure and designating areas for concentrated
tourism growth, before the development takes place.
The NGO/operator/community tries to develop a
community-based tourism project before the backpackers
and commercial operators move in.
COMMUNITY BASED TOURISM PLAN
A community-based tourism plan is a document formed
by the community and developed collaboratively by a broad
cross-section of organizations involved in tourism.
A Community Tourism Plan is a written document
produced on behalf of a community by a group of people
representing a broad cross-section of interests within that
community.
The plan provides a framework for business, local
government, cultural and other organizations to analyze
tourism resources and concerns, and to encourage tourism
development and promotion.
Community-based tourism plan also identifies:
A tourism vision that supports and supports with broader
community goals
Ways to minimize or eliminate negative impacts that could
result from tourism
Economic opportunities while enhancing the culture and natural
amenities of the area
The educational requirements and support needed by residents
to start their own tourism enterprises
Local infrastructure investments or policy and regulatory
changes required to support tourism initiatives
The roles of all the community players and funding avenues
required to foster tourism
Models for developing CBT
projects

In order to develop CBT in a systematic manner, a


methodological framework needs to be adopted.
Pinel (1998) Community-Based Tourism Planning
Process Model
Reid’s (2003) Community-based tourism development
planning model
Tuffin (2005) Community-based tourism development
planning model
Tuffin (2005) Community-based tourism
development planning model
1. Choose a destination
2. Complete a feasibility study with the community
3. Create an action plan
4. Set up an administrative system
5. Prepare for operation
6. Monitor and evaluate
Step 1: Choose a destination
Choosing an appropriate destination requires collecting
information that leads to an understanding of the community.
Those details should be gathered from organizations working
there, government agencies, other communities in the area,
and the community members themselves.

Community potential
Market potential of CBT
Government policy and the role of local government in
supporting CBT
Project personnel and funding
Step 2: Complete a feasibility
study
A tourism feasibility study is research conducted for the
purpose of determining the possibility and potentiality of project
within destination.
The research focus on exploring the following aspects
Community Goals and Motivation for Developing CBT
Awareness and Understanding CBT
The Positive and Negative Impacts of Tourism
The Strengths and Weaknesses of Tourism in the Community
Step 3: Create an action plan
In this stage the community creates an action plan and
enters into agreement with external agencies like tour
operators.
Some of the key issues that need to be considered include:
Programs for the tourists; Services that will need to be
provided;
Development of facilities and infrastructure;
Training that will need to be provided;
Carrying capacity; and, Tour program and price.
Step 4: Set up an administrative system
In this step, the task force sets up a clear administrative
system to effectively manage CBT. The administrative
organization should focus on the following:

Participation level of community members


Division of roles in operation
Division of benefits
Transparency of management
Measures to control economic and social impacts
Measures to control natural and cultural impacts
Cooperation and communication with public and private
partners.
Example of organizational structure
Step 5: Preparation of operation
Before full operation of the tour program can start the
community need to acquire skills and experience in operating
CBT.
At this stage emphasis will be placed on:
Training: including guiding skills, language learning, food
preparation, housekeeping and simple accounting systems
Preparation of information: involving the educational content
of the tour program;
Infrastructure design and construction: community lodges,
trails, water systems, power systems, toilets, etc.
Step 6: Monitoring and evaluation
Monitoring and evaluation starts once the program is in full
operation.
It helps to identify problems, impacts and benefits, as well
as to ensure the sustainability of the operation.
It examines the extent to which the project is meeting its
objectives.
It should also result in plans and efforts to compensate for
weaknesses, correct problems, adjust systems and
improve the program.
Pinel (1998) Community-Based Tourism Planning
Process Model
Individual Catalyst
the process begins through an individual catalyst that
provides initial leadership to the planning process; often times
this requires the inclusion of an outside expert to facilitate the
community group.
Formation of planning task force
A task force (or action committee) is then struck, comprised of
individuals who have technical expertise, vested interests in
the eventual products of the plan and are concerned about
the interests of the community more broadly.
Community assessment and organization
development
it involves raising community awareness about the
issues of tourism development and to seek the
involvement of the community in determining the
essence of the final product.
Planning phase

Product development and marketing


In this stage task force take different actions to shape and
reshape the existing and new product to cater for the needs and
want of the client
Also the selected committee design various marketing policy
and strategies for the purpose of promoting the product to
tourists.
System Building And Program Evaluation.
The model suggests that two types of research are required in
order to support the planning process.
i. First Are The Positivistic Research
ii. Interpretive And Constructive Research
• The creation of a vision to establish an overall framework for
tourism development.
• The setting of goals and objectives to bring that vision about.
• The development of programs designed to accomplish the
relevant objectives.
• An evaluation of the feasibility usually financial of the proposed
project (if necessary and adaptation or refinement).
• The implementation and ongoing monitoring of the project
established as a result of the planning and decision making
process.
THE BASIC COMPONENTS OF A BUSINESS PLAN FOR
CBT

1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


2.0 INTRODUCTION
3.0 BACKGROUND OF THE AREA
4.0 THE EXISTING SITUATION/ SITUATION ANALYSIS
5.0 CBT VENTURE DESCRIPTION
6.0 SERVICE AND PRODUCTS OF THE PROJECTS
7.0 BUSINESS STRUCTURE & MANAGEMENT
8.0 MARKETING PLAN
9.0 FINANCIAL PLAN
10. MONITERING AND EVALUATION
INTRODUCTION
What is the plan about?
Who developed the plan and under what authority?
What does the plan hope to accomplish?
When was the plan prepared, and when will it be monitored
and reviewed?
How was the plan developed, including how public input
was obtained?
How should the plan be used and who will use it?
Why is the plan important to the community?
BACKGROUND OF THE AREA
Communities reside in the area
Economic activities
Level of education and awareness on tourism
Tourism overview in the area
THE EXISTING SITUATION/ SITUATION
ANALYSIS
Community analysis
Tourism market contect
Destination Capital Analysis
• Natural attraction
• Cultural or Historic cultural
• Special Events
• Tourism Service and activities
Policy and legal Analysis
Stakeholder Mapping
Destination SWOT Analysis
CBT VENTURE DESCRIPTION

i. Objectives of the venture


ii. Vision venture
iii. Mission Statement
iv. Keys to Success
v. Start-up Summary
SERVICE AND PRODUCTS OF THE PROJECTS
Describe tourism product and the service that will be
offered by the project
Demonstrate the location of your product by using clear
map ( Please use architects)
Project management and
implementation
• Legal form of the business
• Action plan
• Management and staffing structure
• Capacity building programs
MARKETING PLAN

i. Identifying potential markets


ii. Discussing Pricing strategies
iii. Discussing Promotion strategies
iv. Product Distribution channel
Financial projection
i. Sales forecast
ii. Financial forecast
iii. Source of finance for CBT
Monitoring and Evaluation Plan
i. Propose the strategies for Monitoring
ii. Identify time for evaluation
APPENDIX
• Activity Implementation Schedule for CBT Plan
• Proposed Organizational Structure
• Table that shows Visitors and income for three years