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The term Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) is
very important for the operational as well as maintenance
The RAM of equipment effects the productivity of the
manufacturing system

 The probability of aproduct/equipment/process/system performing
its intended function for a stated period of time under certain
specified conditions.
Deals with reducing the frequency of failures over a time interval
and is a measure of the probability for failure-free operation during a
given interval
it is a measure of success for a failure free operation.
 A few key words describing reliability in quantitative words
 Mean time to failure,
 Mean time between failures,
 Mean time between/before maintenance actions,
 Mean time between/before repairs and
 Mean life of units in counting units such as hours or cycles,
failure rates, and the maximum number of failures in a
specified time interval.
 Is measured by a long, failure free, operation. Long periods of
failure free interruptions results in increased productive
capability while requiring fewer spare parts and less
manpower for maintenance activities which results in lower
Deals with the duration of up-time for operations and is a
measure of how often the system is alive and well.
 It is often expressed as (up-time)/(up-time + downtime) with
many different variants.
 Up-time ad downtime refer to dichotomized conditions. Up-
time refers to a capability to perform the task and downtime
refers to not being able to perform the task
 Deal with at least three main factors:
1. Increasing time to failure,
2. Decreasing downtime due to repairs or scheduled
maintenance, and
3 Accomplishing items 1 and 2 in a cost effective manner.
 Three frequently used availability terms
 Inherent availability as seen by maintenance personnel,
(excludes preventive maintenance outages, supply delays, and
administrative delays)
 Achieved availabilityas seen by the maintenance department,
(includes both corrective and preventive maintenance but does
not include supply delays and administrative delays)
 Operational availability as seen by the user
 A few key words describing availability in quantitative words
 On-line time,
 Stream factor time,
 Lack of downtime, and
 A host of local operating terms including a minimum value for
operational availability.
R(t) = exp(-t/MTBF) = exp(-λt)
 where λ is constant failure rate and MTBF is mean time
between failure.
 MTBF measures the time between system failures and is
easier to understand than a probability number.
 Deals with duration of maintenance outages or how long it
takes to achieve (ease and speed) the maintenance actions.
 The key figure of merit for maintainability is
 Often the mean time to repair (MTTR) and
 Limit for the maximum repair time.
 Quantitatively it has probabilities and is measured based on the
total down time for maintenance including all time for:
diagnosis, trouble shooting, tear-down, removal/replacement,
active repair time, verification testing that the repair is
adequate, delays for logistic movements, and administrative
maintenance delays.
 It is often expressed as
M(t) = 1- exp(-t/MTTR) = 1 - exp(-µt)
• where µ is constant maintenance rate and MTTR is mean time
to repair.
• MTTR is an arithmetic average of how fast the system is
repaired and is easier to visualize than the probability value
• The maintainability issue is to achieve short repair times for
keeping availability high so that downtime of productive
equipment is minimized for cost control when availability is
2.Decision Making
Decision Making is process by which
managers respond to opportunities and threats
by analyzing options, and making
determinations about specific organizational
goals and courses of action
They are two catagores:
1.Programmed decision
2.Non-programmed decisions
Programmed decision: Routine, virtually automatic
decision making that follows established rules or
Non-programmed decisions: Non routine decision
making that occurs in response to unusual,
unpredictable opportunities and threats
Six Steps in Decision Making
3.Machine Installation
Is a key part of putting the machine into service.
If installation is carried out carefully using the
correct procedures,
It is an investment in the machine´s
serviceability and reliability for its entire service
 This specification covers the installation, testing and pre
commissioning of mechanical equipment. Work is to be
performed in conjunction with the manufacturer’s
instructions, standard industrial practices, and relevant
codes and standards.
• The electrical/instrumentation installation work is
identified in a separate document.
• The mechanical work shall be coordinated with the
electrical/instrumentation work to provide a complete
and operable system
• All equipment shall be installed in accordance with,
but not limited to, the latest editions and applicable
provisions of the following codes, laws, regulations,
and standards.
 The Contractor shall read and understand the
manufacturer’s installation requirements prior to
beginning the installation of the equipment.
 Equipment shall only be lifted and handled in
accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and
at points and locations designated for such handling.
 Before installation, all parts shall be thoroughly
cleaned of all rust, grit and foreign matter. Where
accessible without disassembly, all holes and grooves
for lubrication shall be examined and cleaned where
 During installation of equipment, all small access
openings shall be covered with temporary covers
made of tape, plywood or sheet metal whenever
work is not actually in progress.
 Clearance around all equipment shall be checked
prior to installing the equipment. Any
interference or lack of access for maintenance that
may be evident shall be reported to the OWNER
Installation procedures
Main tasks carried out in clutch
• Visual inspection of the cradle
• Inspection of the clutch
• Proper machine axial alignment checking and
• Checking the main and auxiliary electric
circuit connection
• Checking the cooling circuit connection
• Checking the lubricating circuit connection
4.Maintenance Planning &
Planning and scheduling are two different
functions that work together to create a
maintenance program.
Planning is the process of planning, while
scheduling is the process of reconfiguring
workloads in a production/manufacturing
Scheduling is used to allocate plant and
machinery resources, plan human resources, plan
production processes, and purchase materials
Effective planning and scheduling contribute
significantly to the following:

Reduced maintenance cost.

Improved quality of maintenance work by
adopting the best methods and procedures and
assigning the most qualified workers for the
Classification of Maintenance Work
According to Planning and Scheduling
• Routine maintenance: are maintenance operations of
a periodic nature. They are planned and scheduled
and in advance.
• Emergency or breakdown maintenance: interrupt
maintenance schedules in order to be performed.
They are planned and scheduled as they happened.
• Design modifications: are planned and scheduled
and they depend on eliminating the cause of
repeated breakdowns.

• Scheduled overhaul and shutdowns of the plant:

planned and scheduled in advanced.

• Overhaul, general repairs, and replacement:

planned and scheduled in advanced.

• Preventive maintenance: planned and scheduled in

5.Machine Guarding

• Guards are barriers which prevent access to danger

• –Act as physical barriers
• –Enclose and prevent employee contact with
dangerous machine parts
• Machine guards are essential for protecting you From
preventable injuries
The Importance of Machine Guarding
 Amputations are among the most severe and
disabling workplace injuries
Amputations may result from improperly using
Protect yourself from amputations and other hazards
by using effective machine guarding
• Machine-related injuries may include
– Crushed hands and arms
– Severed fingers and limbs – Lacerations and
• Moving machine parts create many hazards –
Pinch points
– Rotating parts
– Flying chips
– Sparks