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# Bose Einstein Condensation

## Condensed Matter II –Spring 2007

Davi Ortega
Summary
• From counting to a new state of matter
– Indistinguishability of particles
– Counting indistinguishable particles
– Einstein’s conclusion = New State
– Some properties
• BEC in Dilute Gases and Liquid Helium
• Experiments to achieve the BEC.
• News
Statistics of Idea Gas
• Two Particles Gas: A and B.
Distinguishable Particles Indistinguishable Particles
Average number of occupation
for each energy state
Bosons: Fermions:
Classical
(Boson
Can occupy level Cannot occupy the same level
Case)
the same
1
n 
exp[  (   )]  1
Some Theory
Particle in a 3D box:

  
2 2 2

  ( x
2
  y
2
  z
2
)  C  
L
2
2mL

## Calculating explicitly the total number:

3/ 2  l (   )
 mkBT  e
N V 2 
 2 

l 1 l 3/ 2
More Theory
3/ 2 
 mkBTc 
N V 2 
 2 
 l 3 / 2

l 1

But what happens now if I let at this temperature the density n V of the
substance increase(e.g., by isothermal compression) to even higher
values?

I claim that in this case a number of molecules which always grows with
the total density makes a transition to the 1. quantum state (state
without kinetic energy)… … The claim thus asserts that something
similar happens as when isothermally compressing a vapor beyond the
volume of saturation. A separation occurs; a part “condenses”, the rest
remains a “saturated ideal gas”. (Einstein, 1925).
Two more useful results

N  l 3 / 2
2.612...
The order of the de Broglie
wavelenght is the same as
 l 1

V  (Tc ) 3
 (Tc )3 the volume ocupied by the
ensemble

##   T 3 / 2  Number of the particles that

N 0  N 1     falls to the “condensate” state
  Tc  
An Last statement
This whole theory assume non interacting
particles: Schrödinger Equation

## Interacting Particles: Gross-Pitaeviski Eq.

 2   2  
 2M  R  Vtrap ( R)  NVint ( R)  ( R)  EN ( R)
2

 
Achievements
• 1938 – Pyotr Kapitsa John Allen and Don Misener: Helium 4

## • 1995 – Wolfgang Ketterle Na23. (4 months later)

Liquid He vs. Diluted Gas
• Strong Interactions in He qualitatively
changes the nature of transition.
• Diluted Gas
– Pure Condensate state
• Liquid Helium
– Zero Viscosity
– And other strange properties.
How to make a BEC ?
• Heat the atoms: 600 K (gas)
• Confine them in a beam
• Decelerate the beam
• Trap the atoms (Magneto Optical Trap)
• Magnetic Trapping (avoid atoms recoil by
spontaneous emission and random
absorption)
• Evaporative Cooling
Famous Picture
Any other way ?!

YES

Michael Chapman
All Optical BEC
Current Research
• BEC achieved in several atoms.
• Strange Properties:
– Superfluidity
– Slowing of light
• Wave-like phenomena in atoms.
– Interference between two condensates.
• Atom Laser
– Coherent Matter Waves