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ME 301: Conduction and Radiation Heat Transfer

Dr. Mohammad Nasim Hasan

Associate Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
BUET, Dhaka-1000
Different Co-ordinate Systems
General Heat Conduction Equation:
For Isotropic and Constant Property Medium

 2T  2T  2T 1 T
  
x 2 y 2 x 2  t
Generation: (Diffusion Eqn.)

 2T  2T  2T
 2  2 0
x 2
y x
Steady, No Heat Generation:
(Laplace Eqn.)
Cartesian Co-ordinate System
 2T  2T  2T q
 2  2  0
x 2
y x k
 2 T  2 T  2 T q 1 T
 2  2   Steady State: (Poisson Eqn.)
x 2
y x k  t
T = T(x, y, z, t);
k ,  :thermal conductivity (W/m.K) and diffusivity (m2/s) of the medium
respectively
q  Volumetric Heat Generation Rate (W / m 3 )
General Heat Conduction Equation:
For Isotropic and Constant Property Medium
Cylindrical Co-ordinate
System
1   T  1  2T  2T q 1 T
r  2 2  2  
r r  r  r  z k  t

Spherical Co-ordinate System

1   2 T  1  2T 1   T  q 1 T
r  2 2  2  sin   
r r  r  r sin  
2 2
r sin    r  k  t
 Governing Equation of Heat Conduction describes heat conduction
phenomena inside the medium/domain, [(x, y, z)/(r, , z)/(r, , θ)]
 at any time (t)

 2 T  2 T  2 T q 1 T 1   T  1  2T  2T q 1 T
    r    
x 2 y 2 x 2 k  t r r  r  r 2  2 z 2 k  t

1   2 T  1  2T 1   T  q 1 T
 r     sin   
r 2 r  r  r 2 sin 2   2 r 2 sin    r  k  t

 Appropriate Boundary Condition and Initial Condition are Necessary

for the solution of Heat Conduction equation.
 Order of differentiation with respect to any dimension/direction is
two while with respect to time it is one. So at least two Boundary
Conditions are necessary for each space dimension/direction while
only one condition with respect to any instant of time must be known
 Boundary Conditions (BC) are the mathematical expression of thermal
condition at the boundary of the system
 Initial Condition (IC) is the mathematical expression of thermal
condition of the system at the instant t = 0
Dimensional Consideration of Thermal System:

 Heat conduction in a medium is said to be one-dimensional when conduction is

significant in one dimension only and negligible in the other two
dimensions. It is said to be two-dimensional when conduction in the third
dimension is negligible and three-dimensional when conduction in all
dimensions is significant.

1D Heat Conduction 2D Heat Flow in a long 3D Heat Conduction in

across an infinite slab channel Silicon Wafer
Thermal Boundary Conditions (BC’s):

2. Specified Heat Flux Boundary Condition:

Heat flux, q = Heat Transfer rate per unit area
(W/m2)
Thermal Boundary Conditions (BC’s):

2.B. Symmetry Boundary Condition:

(Any Flux at the line of symmetry = 0)
Thermal Boundary Conditions (BC’s):

4. Radiation Boundary Condition

4. Interface Boundary Condition

The boundary conditions at an interface

are based on the requirements that:

(1) two bodies in contact must have the

same temperature at the area of
contact and

(2) an interface (which is a surface)

cannot store any energy, and thus the
heat flux on the two sides of an
interface must be the same.
6. Generalized Boundary Condition

 So far single mode heat transfer, such as the

specified heat flux, convection, or radiation
have been considered for simplicity.
 However, a surface may involve multimodal
heat transfer such as convection, radiation,
and specified heat flux simultaneously.
 The boundary condition in such cases is again
obtained from a surface energy balance,
expressed as: