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Associate Professor

Department of Mechanical Engineering

BUET, Dhaka-1000

Different Co-ordinate Systems

General Heat Conduction Equation:

For Isotropic and Constant Property Medium

2T 2T 2T 1 T

x 2 y 2 x 2 t

Transient/Unsteady, No Heat

Generation: (Diffusion Eqn.)

2T 2T 2T

2 2 0

x 2

y x

Steady, No Heat Generation:

(Laplace Eqn.)

Cartesian Co-ordinate System

2T 2T 2T q

2 2 0

x 2

y x k

2 T 2 T 2 T q 1 T

2 2 Steady State: (Poisson Eqn.)

x 2

y x k t

T = T(x, y, z, t);

k , :thermal conductivity (W/m.K) and diffusivity (m2/s) of the medium

respectively

q Volumetric Heat Generation Rate (W / m 3 )

General Heat Conduction Equation:

For Isotropic and Constant Property Medium

Cylindrical Co-ordinate

System

1 T 1 2T 2T q 1 T

r 2 2 2

r r r r z k t

1 2 T 1 2T 1 T q 1 T

r 2 2 2 sin

r r r r sin

2 2

r sin r k t

Governing Equation of Heat Conduction describes heat conduction

phenomena inside the medium/domain, [(x, y, z)/(r, , z)/(r, , θ)]

at any time (t)

2 T 2 T 2 T q 1 T 1 T 1 2T 2T q 1 T

r

x 2 y 2 x 2 k t r r r r 2 2 z 2 k t

1 2 T 1 2T 1 T q 1 T

r sin

r 2 r r r 2 sin 2 2 r 2 sin r k t

for the solution of Heat Conduction equation.

Order of differentiation with respect to any dimension/direction is

two while with respect to time it is one. So at least two Boundary

Conditions are necessary for each space dimension/direction while

only one condition with respect to any instant of time must be known

Boundary Conditions (BC) are the mathematical expression of thermal

condition at the boundary of the system

Initial Condition (IC) is the mathematical expression of thermal

condition of the system at the instant t = 0

Dimensional Consideration of Thermal System:

significant in one dimension only and negligible in the other two

dimensions. It is said to be two-dimensional when conduction in the third

dimension is negligible and three-dimensional when conduction in all

dimensions is significant.

across an infinite slab channel Silicon Wafer

Thermal Boundary Conditions (BC’s):

Heat flux, q = Heat Transfer rate per unit area

(W/m2)

Thermal Boundary Conditions (BC’s):

(Any Flux at the line of symmetry = 0)

Thermal Boundary Conditions (BC’s):

4. Interface Boundary Condition

are based on the requirements that:

same temperature at the area of

contact and

cannot store any energy, and thus the

heat flux on the two sides of an

interface must be the same.

6. Generalized Boundary Condition

specified heat flux, convection, or radiation

have been considered for simplicity.

However, a surface may involve multimodal

heat transfer such as convection, radiation,

and specified heat flux simultaneously.

The boundary condition in such cases is again

obtained from a surface energy balance,

expressed as:

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