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Flow Coefficients

Coefficient of contraction (Cc)


Ac / Ao = Area of jet at CC / Area of orifice

Less than 1 (nearly 0.68)

Coefficient of velocity (Cv)


Vact/Vth = Actual velocity at CC / Theoretical
velocity at CC

Less than 1 (nearly 0.95)


Flow Coefficients
Coefficient of discharge (Cd)
Qact/Qth = Actual discharge / Theoretical
discharge
Less than 1

Coefficient of resistance (Cr)


Loss of head in orifice / Head of water
Relations of Coefficients
Qact = Ac X Vact

Qth = Ao X Vth

Qact / Qth = Ac/Ao X Vact/Vth

Cd = Cc X Cv
Flow Through Pipes
Long pipe:

A pipe whose length is 1000 times its dia is called


long pipe; otherwise short pipe.

Losses in pipes
Major Losses
Minor Losses
Minor Losses
These are due to different variations in pipes.

1. Sudden enlargement
2. Sudden contraction
3. Obstruction
4. Loss at entrance of pipe
5. Loss at exit of pipe
6. Change of direction
7. Pipe fittings
Darcy’s formula
Darcy’s formula
Nomenclature

AX = Cross-sectional area
L = length of pipe
P = wetted perimeter (total length in contact with
water)
AP = Wetted area
 = mass per unit volume (density)
 = velocity of flow
Darcy’s formula
End Results

hf = f.L(4/d) X (2/2g)

OR

hf = fLQ2 / 3d5

f = [0.01 ( 1 + 1/12d)]1/ 2 … for new pipes


f = [0.01 ( 1 + 1/12d)] … for old pipes
Chezy’s formula
 = C (mi)
Hf /L = i = frictional loss per unit length
or Slope of hydraulic gradient.

A/P = m = hydraulic mean depth


or Hydraulic radius.

For circular pipes,


m = A/P = r2/2r = r/2 = d/4
Chezy’s formula
(2g/f) = Chezy’s constant ‘C
Minor Losses
Sudden Enlargement (he)
Minor Losses
Sudden Enlargement (he)

End Result

he = (1 – 2)2/2g
Minor Losses
Sudden contraction
Minor Losses
Sudden contraction

End Result

hc = (22 /2g) X (1/Cc – 1)2


Minor Losses
Entrance to pipe
h = 0.5 (2 / 2g)
Exit from pipe
h = 2/2g
Change of direction (hb)
hb = Kb 2/2g

Kb = Coefficient depending upon radius of bends


and angle of deviation
Kb = 1 … for 90o elbow
Kb = 0.2  0.3 … for 90o easy bend
Minor Losses
Pipe fittings
hp = K 2/2g
where,

K = Coefficient depends upon type of fitting


K = 1 … for 90o elbow
K = 0.25 … for 90o bend
K = 0.2 … for Gate/Foot valve
Water Hammer

• If a valve fitted to a pipe is suddenly closed, it


will experience a very high pressure.
• This effect is called as water hammer.
• If it is possible to close the valve
instantaneously and fluid is incompressible then
pressure exerted would be infinite.

p = L/gt
Hydraulic gradient line (H.G.L)
Flow through parallel pipes
Flow through parallel pipes
L1 , L2 , L3 = Length of parallel pipes 1, 2 and 3
d1 , d2 , d3 = Diameter of pipe 1, 2 and 3
Q1 , Q2 , Q3 = Discharge through pipe 1, 2 and 3
1 , 2 , 3 = Velocities of pipe 1, 2 and 3

Total head consumed to overcome friction in


reaching B:
Through pipe 2: hf = hf1 + hf2
Through pipe 3: hf = hf1 + hf3
Flow through parallel pipes
So,
hf2 = hf3

End Result

(f.L2 Q22) / (d25) = (f.L3 Q32) / (d35)


Hydraulic Transmission of
Power
Hydraulic Transmission of
Power
Where,
H = level difference b/w A and B
L = Length of pipe
 = velocity of flow
d = dia of pipe
a = area of cross section of pipe
Hydraulic Transmission of
Power
hf = frictional losses in pipes = 4fl2 / d.2g
where f = Darcy’s coefficient of friction

= Efficiency of transmission
= (Net head available) / (total head)
= (H- hf) / H
Hydraulic Transmission of
Power
End Result

For Maximum Power Transmission

hf = H/3