Gross Anatomy II

Jan. 17, 2007 Neck 2

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Please select a team by choosing the statement that best represents your amount of previous general equine experience.
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Team 1 no experience Team 2 some experience Team 3 moderate experience Team 4 extensive experience

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Choose the statement that best describes your previous veterinary equine experience.
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No veterinary experience. Some veterinary experience. Moderate veterinary experience. Extensive veterinary experience.

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Announcements    

Be careful to NOT cut the nuchal ligament while doing the dissection of the neck, as the neck rope is anchored into it. Only cut the nuchal ligament to remove the head. If you have a large specimen this is especially important. If you notice any evidence that the neck rope is pulling loose, notify one of the instructors. To remove the head: use a large knife to cut the soft tissue at the level indicated. Use a saw to cut through the vertebral column. Don t carve your cadaver ID on its head as directed. Leave the head out until after the quiz today.

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Objectives/Major Concepts 
  



Find boundaries of Viborg s triangle. Vagosympathetic trunk: review components and function. Understand the components of the nuchal ligament. Discuss lymph drainage in the neck. Read the live horse sections and practice on the pony.
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Where is the wing of the atlas?
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Identify this muscle.
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1. 2. 3. 4.

Brachiocephalicus Omohyoideus Sternocephalicus Sternohyoideus

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Which muscle could be hit with a needle inserted here?
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1. 2. 3. 4.

Omohyoideus Serratus ventralis Splenius Sternohyoideus

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Viborg s Triangle   

Tendon of insertion of sternomandibularis Caudal border of the mandible Linguofacial vein (branch of external jugular)

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Review: Superficial Muscles
Omotransversarius Subclavius
Bifurcation of external jugular vein; location of Viborg¶s triangle.

Omohyoideus Brachiocephalicus Sternocephalicus Cutaneous colli

Popesko I: 154
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Visceral Space of Neck 
  

Contains the viscera of the neck. Bounded dorsally by the longus colli. Bounded ventrally by the neck muscles originating on the manubrium. Bounded laterally by the brachiocephalicus, sternocephalicus and omohyoideus.
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Popesko I: 166. Cross section at C4

Accessory Nerve 


CN XI. Has a dorsal and a ventral branch.   

Ventral branch supplies only sternocephalicus one of the cribbing muscles. (Cribbing is a behavioral vice involving flexion of the neck and sucking in of air. Horse grabs a solid object with its incisors, flexes neck and pulls back, and sucks in air.) Dorsal branch supplies omotransversarius, brachiocephalicus and trapezius. Locate the dorsal branch cranial and dorsal to the shoulder, dorsal to the omotransversarius.
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Dyce 18-37

Lymph Drainage of the Head 

Horse has small multiple or clustered nodes. Medial retropharyngeal receives a lot of the lymph from the head. Cranial deep cervical is the terminal node of the head.
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Dyce 18-37

Lymph Drainage of the Head 

Cranial, middle and caudal deep cervical ln s are scattered along the trachea. Superficial cervical ln is deep to omotransversarius, over the scalenus. More later on the thoracic inlet.
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What ganglion is located at the cranial end of the sympathetic trunk and contains postganglionic sympathetic cell bodies?

The caudal laryngeal nerve is the termination of what nerve?

Vagosympathetic Trunk  

Composed of the vagus nerve and the sympathetic trunk. Vagus is parasympathetic; motor axons are headed to thoracic and abdominal viscera; pre-ganglionic cell bodies are in the brain stem. Postganglionic axons are (relatively long, relatively short).

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Vagosympathetic Trunk  

Sympathetic trunk is sympathetic; motor axons are headed to the head; pre-ganglionic cell bodies are located in the thoracic and cranial lumbar spinal cord. Postganglionic axons are (relatively long, relatively short). There is a nice summary illustration in Dyce: figure 8-76.
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On its way toward the head, the vertebral foramen of artery passes through the the 4th cervical vertebra.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Alar Lateral vertebral Transverse Intervertebral Middle

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Skull and Neck Osteology
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Note: the vertebral bodies decrease in length caudally; C6 has a prominent ventral lamina; C7 has no transverse foramen.
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Nuchal Ligament 

Funicular part: from skull to withers; directly continuous with supraspinous ligament.  

Review question: What is the supraspinous ligament? Funicular part associated with three bursae: cranial and caudal nuchal, and supraspinous.  

Laminar part: spinous processes of T2/T3, to spinous processes of C2-5 (picture in guide p. 15 shows it attached to C6 and C7 as well; as do other references). Both parts are paired.
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cranial nuchal bursa

Nuchal Ligament
supraspinous bursa

caudal nuchal bursa

funicular part lamellar part

Popesko I: 158
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mastoid process retroarticular process

paracondylar process

lateral vertebral foramen

alar foramen

transverse foramen

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mastoid process retroarticular process

paracondylar lateral vertebral foramen process alar foramen

transverse foramen

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Which lymph node is deep to one layer of muscle here?
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1. 2. 3. 4.

Axillary Caudal deep cervical Superficial cervical Tracheal

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Vertebral Artery     

Travels cranially through the transverse foramina from C6 to C1. Enters the atlantal fossa via the transverse foramen of C1. Anastomoses with the occipital artery in the atlantal fossa. Leaves the atlantal fossa via the alar foramen. Immediately enters the lateral foramen of the atlas to supply the spinal cord.
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vertebral a. & occipital a. anastomose; deep PI 161, CERVICAL VERTEBRAE WITH VESSELS AND NERVES cervical a. also joins them

18 vertebral a. 19 deep cervical a. 20 internal carotid a. 21 occipital a.

Popesko I: 161
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Discuss 

What are the following? 
  

14? 16? 22? 23?

Identify these things on the cross section of your cadaver 's neck.

Popesko I: 166. Cross section at C4

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Summary:  

Neck muscles: There are some muscular differences, particularly in the sternocephalicus and brachiocephalicus. The horse has an omohyoideus and a subclavius. Nuchal ligament: much more complex than the dog. Funicular and lamellar parts. Nuchal and supraspinous bursae are clinically important.
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Summary:  

Lymph drainage: lymph nodes in clusters. Medial retropharyngeal drains majority of the head. Cranial deep cervical is the terminal node, however. Accessory nerve: innervates sternocephalicus, one of the cribbing muscles.

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Objectives/Major Concepts 
  



Find boundaries of Viborg s triangle. Vagosympathetic trunk: review components and function. Understand the components of the nuchal ligament. Discuss lymph drainage in the neck. Read the live horse sections and practice on the pony.
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Remove the Head (p. 13)    

We will help you do this some time during the lab. After the quiz, store the head in a bag and label with your desk numbers and/or names. DON T carve on the head as described in the guide. Check on your cadaver s head periodically.
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