An Introductory Presentation On Project Management & Primavera (Version 3.


Basic Concepts Basic Terminologies Concept of Project Management Introduction to Primavera 3.0 & Maintenance

Basic Concepts

Basic Concepts
What is a Project ???
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Unique, one-time event Specific start and end dates Work scope with definable tasks Allocated resources Projected budget or cost Tangible set of deliverables

Challenges in Project Management
Challenges to project management in executing one off multidisciplinary projects are different from those encountered in production planning.

Regular Production line 
Same environment Same people Same product Same technique

Different environment Different people Different product Different technique

Basic Terminologies

The amount of time left to complete an activity after it has started is known as RD (Remaining Duration). . OD (Original Duration) and RD (Remaining Duration): The estimated time required to complete an activity is called OD.Basic Terminologies Activity: Activities represent work to be done in order to complete a project.

Predecessor Successor .Basic Terminologies Predecessor: The activity that effects start or finish dates of other activities (successor activities).

Basic Terminologies Successor: The activity for which start or finish dates are dependent on other activities (predecessor activities). Predecessor Successor .

Generally there are four types of relationships:     SS (Start to Start) FS (Finish to Start) FF (Finish to Finish) SF (Start to Finish) .Basic Terminologies Relationship: Any sort of connection between two activities is known as relationship.

.Basic Terminologies Lag : Lag staggers or delays the relationship of one activity (predecessor) to another (successor).

Basic Terminologies SS ± Relationship between activities in which the start of a successor activity depends on the start of its predecessor. A Predecessor Start-to-start B Successor A Start-to-start with lag Predecessor Lag B Successor .

Finish-to-start A Predecessor B Successor Finish-to-start with lag A Predecessor B Successor .Basic Terminologies FS ± Relationship in which the start of successor activity depends on the completion of its predecessor activity.

Basic Terminologies FF ± Relationship in which the finish of successor activity depends on the finish of its predecessor activity. Finish-to-Finish A Predecessor B Successor Finish-to-Finish with lag A Predecessor Lag B Successor .

Basic Terminologies SF ± Relationship in which the finish of successor activity depends on the start of its predecessor activity. Start-to-Finish A Predecessor B Successor Start-to-Finish with lag Lag B Successor A Predecessor .

LS (Late Start) and LF (Late Finish) dates: Latest possible date by which an activity can be started / finished.Basic Terminologies ES (Early Start) and EF (Early Finish) dates: Earliest possible date by which an activity can be started / finished. .

.Basic Terminologies AS (Actual Start) and AF (Actual Finish) dates: Actual Start and Actual Finish dates are the dates on which an activity has actually started and finished.

measured in planning units.Basic Terminologies TF (Total Float): Duration. the activity can be delayed without affecting the project finish date. Negative or zero Total Float indicates that timely completion of the activity is critical to the completion of the project. . measured in planning units. Such activities are called Critical Activities. the early start of an activity can be delayed without delaying early start of a successor activity. Such activities are called Non-critical Activities. FF (Free Float): The amount of time.

Similarly concreting work cannot be easily done in winter months in regions where temperature goes below freezing during winter. 25th of March. For example: A certain piece of equipment will be received on. say. So we will simply put a constraint to this activity that it cannot start before 26th of March. . That equipment s erection activity cannot be started before 26th of March irrespective of the fact that the foundation will be ready by 15th of March.Basic Terminologies Constraints: Constraints are ground realities that over-rule the logical start and finish time of the activity.

To impose a compulsory finish to that activity.This type of constraint is applied to restrict that activity to finish before a certain date. Finish On . Finish No Later Than .This type of constraint is applied to restrict that activity to finish beyond a certain date. .This type of constraint is applied to restrict that activity to start before a certain date Start No Later Than .This type of constraint is applied to restrict that activity from starting beyond a certain date Finish No Earlier Than .To impose a compulsory start date to that activity.Basic Terminologies Various types of constraints can be used but most commonly used are as follows: Start No Earlier Than . Start On .

Basic Terminologies Critical Activity: An activity that has potential of delaying a project is called a critical activity. Critical Path Method (CPM): A network analysis technique used to predict project duration. Such activities possess total float equal to zero or even less. by analyzing which sequence of activities (which path) has the least amount of scheduling flexibility (the least amount of float). . Critical Path: Chain of critical activities that has potential of delaying a project is called Critical Path.

These are forming the longest chain (14 days + 6 days = 20 days) Any delay in any of the activity on critical path will cause a delay of the whole project .Basic Terminologies Critical Path A Predecessor ES = 1 OD = 10 EF = 10 FS Lag=0 C Successor B FS Lag = 0 ES=15 OD=6 EF=20 Predecessor ES=1 OD=14 EF=14 Activity B and C are on critical path because : 1. 2.

Forward Pass & Backward Pass.Basic Terminologies Scheduling: The process of calculating start and end dates of the activities. Forward Pass: The process of calculating start and finish dates of each activity starting from the project start date. This process is carried out in two passes i.e. . This process generates early start and early finish dates for each activity.

This process generates Late Start and Late Finish dates for each activity. Data Date: The point in time that separates actual (Historical) data from future (Scheduled) data.Basic Terminologies Backward Pass: The process of calculating finish and start dates of each activity starting from the project finish date. .

For example.Basic Terminologies Man-Hours: It is yardstick for measurement of effort. . 4 Man-Hour will mean any of the following: 1 man working for 4 hours 2 men working for 2 hours 4 men working for 1 hour Standard Man-Hours: Estimated effort per unit required to perform a job in terms of man-hours.

Basic Terminologies Earned / Achieved Man-Hours: It is amount of work executed in terms of standard manhours. Project / Budgeted Man-Hours: Total number of man-hours required to execute a project. Actual Man-Hours: It is the man-hours actually utilized to execute work. .

Productivity: It is number of work units produced per man-hour spent. Latest Forecast Plan: Revised / Updated Plan showing expected dates for balance activities at certain point in time during project life span. Efficiency: It is the ratio of earned man-hours to actual man-hours.Basic Terminologies Original (Target / Base Line) Plan: A plan showing all activities as foreseen at start of the project. .

Cost at completion is estimated periodically during course of project execution. .Basic Terminologies Budgeted Cost: Total estimated cost approved for execution of a project. Cost at Completion: The expected total cost at completion of an activity or a project.

. dates across the top and activity durations are shown as date-placed horizontal bars. It is also known as Bar Chart.Basic Terminologies Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT): An event oriented network analysis technique used to estimate project duration when there is a higher degree of uncertainty with the individual activity duration estimates. Gantt Chart: A graphic display of schedule-related information listing project elements on left side of the chart. PERT applies the Critical Path Method (CPM) to a weighted average duration estimates.



Indirect Cost: Cost which cannot be clearly attributed to specific activity is know as indirect cost . It is also known as Fixed Cost because these are incurred irrespective of the quantity of the work performed. . That cost is also called Variable Cost because it is dependent on quantity of work performed. Direct Cost: Cost which can be clearly attributed to the activity performed is know as Direct Cost.Basic Terminologies Cost Center: Cost Center is the lowest identifiable/measurable activity against which costs incurred can be booked.

Basic Terminologies Resource: Anything that is required to perform an activity is called a resource Resources can be Manpower. Equipment and Materials .

Project Management .

Objectives of Project Management ‡ Timely completion of the Project ‡ Budgetary Control so as to complete the Project within the budgetary provisions established by the Company. Safety and Environment at the work places. . ‡ Maintain established standards of Health. ‡ Ensure quality of works as required under the Contract.

Dependency Cycle Engineering Procurement Construction Excellent communication between each phase is extremely important .

Project Management Cycle Plan Organize Control Direct .

Project Management Phases Two Phases of Project Management: ‡ Planning ‡ Control .

Planning ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Identify activities to be done Identify milestones Define WBS and OBS Decide/calculate duration of activities Decide sequence of activities Decide resources Prepare cost budget .

‡ A properly planned WBS delivers the following benefits: The project can be planned systematically Resources can be effectively scheduled Work teams can be assigned responsibilities Costs and budget elements can be compared .Work Breakdown Structure ‡ Breaking down a long and complex project into work packages of smaller duration and complexity.

1 Zone/Area 1. Project 1.1.1 Cost Center/Activity .1 Construction Breakdown Structure 1.1 Discipline 1.1.

Organization Breakdown Structure ‡ Represents a project organization structure that matches with WBS. ‡ Facilitates better control through mini projects within large and complicated projects. . ‡ Defines responsibility for each level of WBS.

Engr. Equip. Civil (area #1) Engr. Piping ( Engr. . .ech. Engr. ngr. Piping Engr. Equip.Organization Breakdown Structure PROJE T/ ITE N GER AREA I/C #1 Const. Engr. Const. .Civil ngr. Engr. Civil REA I/ Engr. Civil Const. Piping AREA I/C #2 Engr. . Equip. ngr.Elec.

Mechanical & Electrical sequences.1 PLAN: Sequence of major phases e.g. P & C inter-phase. or Civil.LEVELS OF PLAN LEVEL .. . E.


. Piping. Structure.LEVELS OF PLAN LEVEL ± 2 PLAN: Breaks major phases into geographic distribution (Zone/Area) and/or disciplines e.g. Foundation. etc..


LEVELS OF PLAN LEVEL .3 PLAN: Breaks all discipline activities into Cost Centers .


Q. tacking.g.LEVELS OF PLAN LEVEL . etc. material withdrawals from stores. welding. layout. .4 PLAN: Further breaks down work into smaller activities e.C checks..


Resource Allocation & Leveling Resources required may include: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Manpower Tools & Plants Direct materials Consumables Special jigs & fixtures .

Resource Allocation & Leveling ‡ Resource requirement should be a smooth curve i. . maintains peak for required period and then gradually decrease till project is completed. . gradual increase till it reaches its peak.e. ‡ Resource Leveling is done in P3.





These actions include combination of all technical and corresponding administrative.Definition of Maintenance: All actions which have the objective of retaining or restoring an item in or to a state in which it can perform its required function. Corrective Maintenance ii. managerial & supervision activities Types of Maintenance: i. Preventive Maintenance .

Corrective Maintenance: Type of maintenance where equipment is maintained after break down. This type has many variations & is subject of various researches to determine best & most efficient way to maintain equipment. Recent studies have shown that preventive maintenance is effective in preventing age related failures of equipment . This maintenance is often expensive because worn equipment can damage other parts & cause multi damages Preventive Maintenance: Where equipment is maintained before breakdown occurs.

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