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m   ! !
%"! ! & !
! !
r A motive is an internal energizing force that
orients a person's activities toward satisfying a
need or achieving a goal.
r Actions are effected by a set of motives, not
just one.
r If marketers can identify motives then they can
better develop a marketing mix.
 ( !  !! ))

r mhysiological
r Safety
r Love and Belonging
r Esteem
r Self Actualization
r Need to determine what level of the
hierarchy the consumers are at to
determine what motivates their purchases.

Needs for self-fulfillment

Needs for self-respect,
reputation, prestige, and status


Needs for affection, belonging
to a group, and acceptance

Needs for security, protection, and order

Needs for food, drink, sex, and shelter

m  m'

r merception is the process of selecting, organizing and

interpreting information inputs to produce meaning.
r Information inputs are the sensations received through
sight, taste, hearing, smell and touch.
r Selective attention Ɯonly those stimuli that capture
and hold attention can be perceived.
r Selective distortion Ɯconsumers alter information that
is inconsistent with their beliefs and attitudes.
r Selective retention Ɯconsumers retain only part of
what they perceive.
r The process of receiving, organizing and assigning
meaning to stimuli detected by the senses
( * &  

r Learning, changes in a person's behaviour
caused by information and experience.
r Knowledge is the familiarity with the product
and expertise.
r Inexperience buyers often use prices as an
indicator of quality more than those who have
knowledge of a product.
Non-alcoholic Beer example: consumers chose
the most expensive six-pack, because they
assume that the greater price indicates greater
r §earning is the process through which a
relatively permanent change in behavior
results from the consequences of past
r Changes in behaviour which result from
observation or experience
r Responses to stimuli are learned as a result of
rewards or punishments.
r Responses can become habits that replace
wilful behaviour.
''' *
r Attitude is one of the most important concepts
in understanding consumer behaviour; it is a
learned disposition to act in a certain way
r Attitudes are formed over time, are slow to
change, and are excellent predictors of
r Individual learns attitudes through experience
and interaction with other people.
r Consumer attitudes toward a firm and its
products greatly influence the success or
failure of the firm's marketing strategy.
r mersonality is a pattern of traits that influence
behaviour; but it is not always clear how
personality affects consumption behaviour.
r All the internal traits and behaviors that make a
person unique, uniqueness arrives from a
person's heredity and personal experience.
r Traits effect the way people behave. Marketers
try to match the store image to the perceived
image of their customers.
+m  m  

r orkaholism
r Compulsiveness
r Self confidence
r Friendliness
r Adaptability
r Ambitiousness
r Dogmatism
r Authoritarianism
r Introversion
r Extroversion
r Aggressiveness
r Competitiveness.
r Most valuable way of looking at a market and
its potential.
r Lifestyles are the consistent patterns people
follow in their lives.
r EXAMmLE healthy foods for a healthy lifestyle.
Sun tan not considered fashionable in US until
1920's. Now an assault by the American
Academy of Dermatology.