Lecture 3

Refrigeration, Heat pumps and Air Conditioning

Efficiency of a cooling system .

the more efficient the heat pump. The higher the COP. .Coefficient of Performance (COP) COP is dimensionless.

COMPRESSION COOLING Compression Vapor Vapor Evaporator Condenser Expansion Liquid + Vapor Liquid .

‡ The choice of refrigerant and the required cooling temperature and load determine the choice of compressor. . ‡ Additional factors such as ease of maintenance. and other auxiliaries. power. as well as the design of the condenser. etc. physical space requirements and availability of utilities for auxiliaries (water.‡ Required cooling temperature largely determines the choice of refrigerant.) also influence component selection. evaporator.

. a hygroscopic (water absorbing) solution is introduced in the absorbing chamber. Usually in commercial applications it is lithium bromide (LiBr) salt solution. As the heat source steam or any waste heat stream can be used. Evaporating liquid used is typically water .ABSORPTION COOLING A heat source is used to provide energy for the cooling process. To increase the rate of evaporation.

Evaporator Absorber .

High pressure generator .

Condenser .

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‡ Environment friendly ‡ Direct fired units can reach for higher efficiencies. . ‡ Can be coupled with CHP systems to make use of the waste heat streams.Comparison Compression Cooling Absorption Cooling ‡ Uses electricity or mechanical energy ‡ Relatively high COP ‡ Generate a high level of noise ‡ Risk of environmental pollution ‡ Uses steam or waste heat stream. ‡ Relatively low COP ‡ Relatively less noisy.

Evaporative Cooling ‡ ‡ ‡ Air in contact with water to cool it close to µwet bulb temperature¶ Advantage: efficient cooling at low cost Disadvantage: air is rich in moisture Sprinkling Water Hot Air Cold Air .

‡Maximum or Carnot Efficiency COP T Min T Max = T Min / ( T Max T Min ) = Minimum Temperature = Maximum Temperature .

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