Birth of Nanotechnology
• Professor Taniguchi of Tokyo Science University used the word “nanotechnology” to describe the science and technology of processing or building parts with nanometric tolerances.

1959.ORGIN • The concept of Nanotechnology was first given by physicist Richard Feynman at an American physical meeting at Caltech on December 29. .

Taniguchi uses the term nanotechnology for the first time .History • ~ 2000 Years Ago – Sulfide nanocrystals used by Greeks and Romans to dye hair • ~ 1000 Years Ago (Middle Ages) – Gold nanoparticles of different sizes used to produce different colors in stained glass windows • 1959 – “There is plenty of room at the bottom” by R. Feynman • 1974 – “Nanotechnology” .

First book on nanotechnology by K. Atomic Force Microscope invented by Binnig. Quate and Gerbe .History • 1981 – IBM develops Scanning Tunneling Microscope • 1985 – “Buckyball” . Eric Drexler.Scientists at Rice University and University of Sussex discover C60 • 1986 – “Engines of Creation” .

Iijima • 1999 – “Nanomedicine” – 1st nanomedicine book by R. Freitas • 2000 – “National Nanotechnology Initiative” launched .History • 1989 – IBM logo made with individual atoms • 1991 – Carbon nanotube discovered by S.

characterization. molecular. and application of structures. production. and systems with at least one novel/superior characteristic or property. . and macromolecular scale) that produces structures.Definitions The design. devices. and systems by controlled manipulation of size and shape at the nanometer scale (atomic. devices.

are in the range 0.12–0. typical carbon-carbon or the spacing between these atoms in a molecule. • One nanometer (nm) is 10−9 . of a meter. . and a DNA double-helix has a diameter around 2 nm.Fundamental Concepts • There are two main approaches that is used in nanotechnology they are “Bottom-Up” and “TopBottom” approaches. By comparison.15 nm.

the comparative size of a nanometer to a meter is the same as that of a marble to the size of the earth.Cont. . Or another way of putting it: a nanometer is the amount an average man's beard grows in the time it takes him to raise the razor to his face. Fundamental Concepts • To put that scale in another context.

Four Generations .

as well as quantum mechanical effects. • (Image of reconstruction on a clean Gold(100) surface) . These include statistical mechanical effects.Larger to smaller: a materials perspective • A number of physical phenomena become pronounced as the size of the system decreases. for example the “quantum size effect” where the electronic properties of solids are altered with great reductions in particle size.

. and the necessary measures to mitigate and prepare for possible undesirable secondary effects. This makes it all the more critical that we strike a proper balance between the promised benefits.Long -Term View • Nanotechnology has opened an era of scientific convergence and technological integration with the promise of broad societal implications.

• Nanomaterials .Current research Rotaxane.molecular switch DNA switch • This device transfers energy from nano-thin layers of quantum wells to nanocrystals above them. causing the nanocrystals to emit visible light.

Approaches • Bottom-up approach These seek to arrange smaller components into more complex assemblies. • Top-down approach These seek to create smaller devices by using larger ones to direct their assembly. .

Biomimetic approaches Bionics or biomimicry seeks to apply biological methods and systems found in nature. to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology. .Approaches • Functional approaches These seek to develop components of a desired functionality without regard to how they might be assembled. Biomineralisation is one example of the systems studied.

.Tools and Technique • The atomic force microscope AFM and the Scanning Tunneling Microscope STM are two early versions of scanning probes that launched nanotechnology.

are under development and already approved for human use in some countries .Tools and Technique • Now we are using molecular epitaxy or MBE. stress-sensitive Transfersome vesicles. • ultradeformable.

Nanotechnology Applications • Information Technology Smaller. faster. more energy efficient and powerful computing and other IT-based systems • Energy More efficient and cost effective technologies for energy production − Solar cells − Fuel cells − Batteries − Bio fuels .

and better cosmetics . water proof and wrinkle free textiles • Household and cosmetics − Self-cleaning and scratch free products. paints. and lab-on-chips for food quality testing • Appliances and textiles −Stain proof. sensors.Nanotechnology Applications • Medicine • • • • • • • • Cancer treatment Bone treatment Drug delivery Appetite control Drug development Medical tools Diagnostic tests Imaging Consumer Goods • Foods and beverages −Advanced packaging materials.

Nanoscale Devices and Integrated Nanosystems Lab on Chip − A lab on chip integrates one or more laboratory operation on a single chip − Provides fast result and easy operation − Applications: Biochemical analysis (DNA/protein/cell analysis) and bio-defense .

Video for Nanotechnology .

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