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Pengerjaan Permukaan

Surface treatment

Penampilan, fungsi, umur pakai


Kegunaan surface treatment
 Meningkatkan kekerasan
 Meningkatkan ketahanan terhadap kikisan
 Mengontrol gesekan
 Mereduksi adhesi
 Memperbaiki pelumasan
 Meningkatkan ketahahan terhadap korosi
 Memperindah
Aplikasi surface treatment
 Biomedical (biocompatible coatings on implants, drug coatings for sustained
release…)
 Mechanical
 Tribological – friction and wear (tool steels, implants…)
 Fatigue – minimize surface defects, add compressive stress
 Hardness
 Corrosion
 Protective coatings for harsh environments (catalytic converters,
electrochemical cells…)
 Thermal – modify thermal coefficient of expansion to minimize stresses for
thermal cycling
 Electronic – dielectric barriers, electrical grounds
 Optical – reflective coatings or anti-reflective coatings (tinted glass, solar
cells…)
 Etc...
Surface mechanical hardening
 Apply mechanical impulse (light hammering) on the
surface of a metalic part.

 Hammering action causes tiny amount of plastic flow on


the surface, resulting in work-hardening due to
compressive residual stresses.

 Includes:
 Shot peening
 Water jet peening
 Laser peening
Shot peening VIDEO 1

Menggunakan bola-bola kecil dari


logam atau keramik
Water-jet peening
Laser peening

VIDEO 2
Case hardening
 The chemical structure of the metal is changed by
diffusing atoms of an alternate element which results
in alterations to the micro-structure on the crystals on
the surface.

 The metal parts are put in an oven and heated with the
atmosphere containing excess of a gaseous/liquid form
of the “doping” substance, so that the dopant can
diffuse into the surface.
Difusi
Beberapa proses case hardening

VIDEO 3
Thermal spraying
Metal is melted in a spray gun. High pressure gas then sprays the liquid
metal, depositing a layer on top the part similar to a painting process.
a. Thermal wire spray
b. Thermal powder spray
c. Plasma spray
Electroplating

A thin layer of metal is


deposited on the surface of
an electrically conducting
part.

The metal from the anode is dissolved into the solution and deposited
on the cathode.
Anodizing
VIDEO 4

The process uses metal part as


an anode, by electrolytic
process, a layer of hard metal
oxide is formed at the anode
(surface part)

Application:
coloring of aluminium
Vapor deposition - Sputtering
An electric field ionizes an inert gas (eg. Argon), and the ions are used to
bombard the coating substance

Very thin layer of deposited


materials (microns)

Application: electronic chips


Painting
 Painting methods:
 Dip coating: part is dipped into a container of paint, and
pulled out
 Spray coating: one or more spray guns move along the
surface of the part to give a uniform coat of paint
 Electrostatic spraying: the paint particles are given an
electrostatic charge and the spray is achieved by
applying a voltage difference across the paint particles
and the part.

VIDEO 5
 Silk-screening
 Tine holes are made in a thin (silk-like) sheet, corresponding to the
pattern that needs to be painted
 The screen is kept on top of the part and the paint is poured on top
of the screen
 A squeegee brush is used to squeeze the paint through the holes
 The screen is removed and the part is sent to dry in an oven
Aplikasi silk creening
 Industri tekstil – pola-pola berwarna, logo
 Mengecat hampir semua tulisan dan pola pada produk
elektronik (contoh: semua nomor dan huruf pada
Hand Phone)
 Membuat pola pada PCB