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COMPUTER

ARCHITECTURE
LESSON OBJECTIVE:
 Von Neumann Architecture
Fetch and Execute Cycle
 Computer Architecture is a specification
detailing how a set of software and
hardware technology standards interact
to form a computer system .
 EX: Von Neumann Architecture.

Von Neumann Architecture


Von Neumann Architechture
Von Neumann Architecture is based on
the idea to hold programs and data in
Memory.
 It describes the design of an electronic computer
with its
1. CPU(consisting of Arithmetic Logic Unit, control
unit , registers)
a. Arithmetic Logic unit :A part of
architecture which carries out calculations and
logical operations(AND,OR,NOT etc.).
b. Control Unit :A control unit (CU) handles
all processor control signals(read/write).
It reads instruction from memory and keeps
its address in PC(program counter) register.
Memory :memory that can hold both
data and also the program processing that
data.
 In modern computers this memory is
RAM.
 System BUS :The system bus is a pathway
composed of cables and connectors used to
carry data between a computer
microprocessor and the main memory.
 Its communication path for the data and
control signals moving between the major
components of the computer system.
 Address BUS
 Data BUS
 Control BUS
Detailed Diagram of Von Neumann Architecture
 Registers:
 A special, high-speed storage area within
the CPU(microprocessor).
 CPU uses these registers to store data
and instructions temporarily for
processing.

 Each register receives information holds


its temporarily and pass on to the
respective unit depending on the signal of
generated by CU(Control Unit)

 MAR,MBR,PC,CIR etc.
 ProgramCounter: (PC)An incrementing counter
that keeps track of the memory address of which
instruction is to be executed next.
 Memory Address Register (MAR) - The
address in main memory that is currently being
read or written.
 Memory Buffer Register (MBR) - A two-way
register that holds data fetched from memory
(and ready for the CPU to process) or data
waiting to be stored in memory.
 Current Instruction register (CIR) - A
temporary storage register for the instruction
that has just been fetched from memory.
 Accumulator:
 An Accumulator is a register in which
intermediate arithmetic and logic results are
stored.
Fetch –Execute-Cycle
MAIN MEMORY
READ OPERATION:
WRITE OPERATION

MDR