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TRIBOLOGI DAN PERAWATAN

S1 Teknik Mesin FT-UGM

Sugiyono
04. Friction
Principal of Friction

Friction Force

 The friction occurs if two surfaces are in contact.


 A block on a table may not start to move when we
apply a small force to it.
o This means that there is no net force in the horizontal
direction, and that the applied force is balanced by
another force (friction force).
o This other force (friction force) must change its
magnitude and direction based on the direction and
magnitude applied force.
 If the applied force is large enough, the block will
start to move and accelerate.

 The friction force acts in a direction parallel to the


area of contact, and opposes the motion or the
tendency to move (the friction force will be always
opposite to the direction of potential motion).
 The friction force does not depend on the surface area
(contact area).
 The friction force depends on two things:
o The normal force (Rn)
o The nature of the surfaces involved ()

Ffriction =  Rn

 There are two different friction forces:


 The static friction force (no motion).
 The kinetic friction force (motion).
Normal Force

 The normal force will be always perpendicular to


the surface.
 The maximum static friction force and the kinetic
friction force are proportional to the normal force.
 Changes in the normal force will thus result in
changes in the friction forces.

More Friction Less Friction

A Big Difference of Pushing and Pulling


Static Friction

 The static friction holds a stationary object in place


when in contact with another surface (prevents an
object on a surface from moving by opposing any
tangential force that may be acting on it).

 The static friction force increases with the applied


force but has a maximum value.
FS   S N
Direction opposite to any force Normal force
trying to move the object
Coefficient of Static Friction

Force of an object > MAX value of FS :


 Object begins to move.
 Static friction force is replaced by kinetic
friction force FK
Limiting value of static friction:
 As more force is applied, the friction force increase.
 The friction force will continue to increase until the
instant immediately prior to the initiation of movement.
At this moment:
o Motion ≠ 0
o Ffriction = Flim
o  = s
Therefore, at this moment:

s = Flim / Rn
mg

What angle the plane needs to be inclined before the


block begins sliding under the influence of gravity?

FG  mg sin 
S N N  mg cos 
m
mg sin    S mg cos 
mg sin 
tan    S
mg cos  mg 
  tan 1  S
Surfaces S
Aluminum on aluminum 1.1
Aluminum on steel 0.61
Copper on steel 0.53
Steel on steel 0.74
Nickel on nickel 1.1
Glass on glass 0.94
Copper on glass 0.68
Oak on oak (parallel to grain) 0.62
Oak on oak (perpendicular to grain) 0.54
Rubber on concrete (dry) 1.0
Rubber on concrete (wet) 0.3
Kinetic (Dynamic) Friction
Forces resisting motion of one object
sliding across the surface of another object
 Very complex.
 Good approximation
 Kinetic Frictional Force
 Surfaces in motion
 Resisting that motion

The kinetic friction force is independent of the


applied force, and has a magnitude that is less
than the maximum static friction force
FK  K N
Kinetic friction force always Normal component of the
acts in the direction opposite force by which the object
that in which an object is is bound to the surface
moving across a surface (usually gravity)

Coefficient of Kinetic Friction


K N
m

mg sin 
FG  mg sin 
mg cos  mg  N  mg cos 

Block’s acceleration?
FK    K N    K mg cos 

FG  FK
a
m
FG  FK
a  g sin    K g cos 
m
Surfaces K
Aluminum on aluminum 1.04
Aluminum on steel 0.47
Copper on steel 0.36
Steel on steel 0.57
Nickel on nickel 0.53
Glass on glass 0.40
Copper on glass 0.53
Oak on oak (parallel to grain) 0.48
Oak on oak (perpendicular to grain) 0.32
Rubber on concrete (dry) 0.90
Rubber on concrete (wet) 0.25
Solid Friction
 Resistance force for sliding
 Static.
 Kinetic.
 Causes
 Surface roughness (asperities).
 Adhesion (bonding between dissimilar materials).

 Factors influencing friction


 Frictional drag lower when body is in motion.
 Sliding friction depends on the normal force and
frictional coefficient, independent of the sliding speed
and contact area.
 Effect of Friction
 Frictional heat (burns out the bearings, ignites a match).
 Wear (loss of material due to cutting action of opposing.

 Engineers control friction


 Increase friction when needed (using rougher surfaces).
 Reduce friction when not needed (lubrication).
Friction is affected by the following:
 Presence of wear particles and externally introduced
particles at the sliding interface.
 Relative hardness of the materials in contact.
 Externally applied load and/or displacement.
 Environmental conditions such as temperature and
lubricants.
 Surface topography.
 Microstructure or morphology of materials
 Apparent contact area.
 Kinematics of the surfaces in contact (i.e., the
direction and the magnitude of the relative motion
between the surfaces).
Friction & Braking
Consider how you stop in your car:
 The contact force between the tires and the road is
the static friction force (for most normal drivers).
It is a force that provides the acceleration required
to reduce the speed of your car.

 The maximum static friction force is larger than the


kinetic friction force. As a result, you are much
more effective stopping your car when you can use
static friction instead of kinetic friction (e.g. when
your wheels lock up).
Measuring Friction