American Public University System

American Military University

American Public University

PLAGIARISM

COLL 100 Foundations of Online Learning
Provided by School of Arts and Humanities, American Public University System (Dec. 2009)

What is Plagiarism? 

An

act of fraud. 

The most frequently observed form of academic dishonesty. An incorporation of another·s ideas without proper

attribution of the source. 
Literary theft.

What are Some Examples of Plagiarism? 

Submitting

the work of another as your own. 

Changing or rearranging the words from a source without

giving credit to the original author(s). 
Providing incorrect information about a source. Not using quotations marks for word for word quotes or

copying passages containing over 40 words without the use of a block quote.

Avoid Plagiarism 

Cite to give credit for ideas or words that are not your own. 

When using the exact words of an author use quotation marks

or block quotations to highlight the words of the original author. 
Do not submit work that is not your own. Do not rearrange the words of others without giving proper

credit to the original author.

Quoting and Paraphrasing What is the Difference?
Here is a quick guide to the difference between a paraphrase (no quotation marks) and a quote (quotation marks or block quote needed): 
A direct quote is taking a key phrase, or two or more words in order,

from an outside source. quotation marks (or a block quote) are necessary. 
A paraphrase is rewording the idea of the original passage ² it is not

rearranging the author·s words. quotation marks are not necessary. 
Rearranging, changing, or leaving out a word or two from an original

passage does not make it a paraphrase ² the entire passage must be reworded.

Parenthetical Citations
APA format uses parenthetical citations. References to sources are made directly in the body of the text using parentheses. The parenthetical citation for a direct quote includes the author, year of publication, and the page or paragraph number where the direct quote can be found. Example: Lashway (1996), describes an education strategy as ³a pattern of behavior designed to gain the cooperation of followers in accomplishing organizational goals´ (para. 5). The parenthetical citations for paraphrasing only includes the author and the year of publication. Paraphrasing does not require a page or paragraph number. Example: In order to accomplish goals in an educational setting ,cooperation from employees is vital (Lashway, 1996).

Tips for Honest Writing 
Read a passage, and then write your

interpretation of it with the book or text closed. do not attempt to paraphrase with the passage right in front of you if you feel unsure about how to do it. 
When in doubt, just take the sentence and

cite it as a direct quote using exact words.

To Cite or Not to Cite 

Cite any copyrighted material Cite any work from another author Cite previously published works even if the work is your own Cite exact words spoken in an interview It is not necessary to cite known facts. for example: President

Obama was sworn into office in January, 2009. 
It is not necessary to cite information found in the public domain.

Types of Quotes 
Short quotes (fewer than 40

words) 
Block quotes (40 or more words)

Short Quotes
Short quotes (under 40 words) are incorporated into the text and enclosed in quotation marks in two ways. Example 1: As Quindlen (2000) expressed, ´each time I look at my diploma, I remember that I am still a student, still learning everyday how to be humanµ (p. 20). Example 2: ´Each time I look at my diploma, I remember that Iam still a student, still learning everyday how to be humanµ (Quindlen, 2000, p. 20). Note: For some electronic sources a page number may not be provided. Use the paragraph the abbreviation para. instead of using page (p.). Review example three on this slide. Example 3: Lashway (1996), describes an education strategy as ´a pattern of behavior designed to gain the cooperation of followers in accomplishing organizational goalsµ (para. 5).

Block Quotes 
Block quotes (more than 40 words) are written in a freestanding

block of text and do not need quotation marks. 

Begin the block quote on a new line and indent the block five

spaces or ½ inch from the left margin, such as what you would do when indenting a paragraph. 
Double space the entire quotation.

Example for a Block Quote

Quindlen (2000) summarizes her philosophy on life as follows: Get a life in which you are not alone. Find people you love, and who love you. And remember that love is not leisure, it is work. Each time I look at my diploma, I remember that I am still a student, still learning everyday how to be human. (p. 20)

Note: For some electronic sources a page number may not be provided. Use the paragraph abbreviation para. instead of using page (p.).

Quoting Modification: Ellipses
Use ellipses («) when you omit a part of a direct quote in order to highlight a main point or to reduce a passage. Example: During the observation, Jones (2006) noted that ´the three-year old, a talkative boy, was quick to initiate a conversation«he was bilingual and did not experience any difficulty switching between languagesµ (p. 109).

Note: For some electronic sources a page number may not be provided. Use the paragraph the abbreviation para. instead of using page (p.).

Quoting Modification: Brackets

Use brackets [ ] around a word when you want to indicate that the word in brackets is a substitute for several words which express the same meaning. Examples: During the observation, Jones (2006) noted that ´the three-year old, a talkative boy, was quick to initiate a conversation«he was bilingual and did not experience any difficulty switching between languagesµ (p. 109).

During the observation, Jones (2006) noted that ´the three-year old, a talkative boy, was quick to [speak] « he was bilingual and did not experience any difficulty switching between languagesµ (p. 109).

Note: For some electronic sources a page number may not be provided. use the paragraph the abbreviation para. instead of using page (p.).

Copyright Laws

Copyright laws protect original ideas because they are considered intellectual property. Intellectual property includes forms such as, music, videos, photographs, magazine articles, paintings, illustrations, electronic sources, and a variety of other sources.

Copyright Laws
All published works are not necessarily copyrighted. Examples of non-copyrighted material which may be used without having to cite include: 
Public Compilations (i.e. - phone book) U.S. Government Published Works Works in the Public Domain (works that have

expired Copyright Protection)

Please Note
Do not list a reference for which you do not have a citation in the body of the paper. Similarly, do not include a citation without a corresponding reference.

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