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LINGÛÍ STICA APLICADA KATICA OBILINOVIC
SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING
Nicolas Burón/Dayan Farías/Osvaldo Zúniga
5th JUNE, 2008
Second Language Writing
• L2 Writing Teaching and Learning • Orientations in L2 Writing • Sociopolitical issues
“Writing is text, is composing and is social construction” (Cumming,1998)
Questions in L2 Writing:
-What is good writing? -What is good writing good for? -What does it mean to be a good writer? -How can we teach good writing?
Orientations in L2 Writing:
Text and classroom-Based Orientations Process-based orientations Budding sense of disciplinarity Growing orientation to sociopolitical issues
Text and Classroom-based Orientations
Main concerns in L2 Writing
• • • •
Error Contrastive rethoric Response to writing Assessment
Most concerns in contemporary L2 writing teaching and learning focuses in the sociocultural and individual factors rather than error. Main problems in this issue lies in the criteria for evaluation (Mainly in L2 Writing tests).
Most researches states that…
• Proficient L2 writers focus on content, and not only on form as they write. L2 writers need to reach a threshold level of proficiency in L2 before they can engage the efficient writing processes they use in L1 Writers’ processes vary faily across individuals… Shifting to L1 is a good strategy to elaborate better texts.
-Mental processes -Individual development
• Second Language Acquisition • Socio-cognitive/Sociocultural Studies
• Ideology (Politically Correct) • Gender (Sexist language v/s Gender-neutral language) • Culture • L1/L2 De facto evaluation criteria • Individual factors • De facto Standards for L1/L2 Teaching and Learning • Cross-cultural communication • Plagiarism • People’s choices
Ronald Carter & David Nunan (2001) The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Students of Other Languages. UK: CUP p.28-33
Evolution of the status of Language Writing (p.28-29)
“L2 Writing was not viewed as a language skill taught to learners…” -L2 teaching focused in grammar rather than communicative competence -Prescriptivism: Evaluation critieria focused on error (correctness) and accuracy. -Native Speaker composition theory (NES).
-L2 Writing seen as a language skill -L2 teaching focused on communicative competences -Learned-Centered Teaching -Coherent teaching strategies for writing -Inclusion of direct tests of writing (MELAB, Cambridge ESOL tests, etc.)
L2 Writing Strategies (TESOL)
• Re-writing from very different viewpoints • Shifting registers to explore changing communicative effects • Writing predictions and completions to texts as part of a process of detailed text study • Cross-genre writing • These activities should be integrated with other competencies. (p.29-30)
Research and main problems in L2 writing evaluation methodology (p.30-31)
Main topics: -NES Composition -L1/L2 writing behaviour -Sociocultural factors -Error Main problems: -Cultural bias -Accuracy in L2 writing evaluation -Assessment -Fair and Equitable L2 Writing Evaluation. -Descriptvism V/S Prescriptivism -Coherence -Discourse
Key factors for succesful L2 Writing Teaching and Learning (p.32-33)
• • • • Careful needs analysis Co-operative and group work Intergration of language skills in class activities Learning style and strategy training in order to improve students’ learning strategies • The use of relevant, authentic materials and tasks • Scientific perspective • Be open-minded
• Do you think that the criteria suggested in MINEDUC’s Planes y Programas meet the necessities for L1/L2 Writing teaching? • In what way Discourse Community could improve L2 writing methodology? • What are the differences between the perspective of Ilona Leki and the perspective of Joy Reid? • Some linguists suggest that multimodal learning can improve writing performance, but most people think that younger generations have a poor performance in writing. What is your opinion about that? Is multimodal learning theory a presupposition about L1/L2 writing improvement?
• How L1/L2 teachers can cooperate to unify their strategies for L1/L2 writing learning? • How culture can influence in the criteria of evaluation of L2 writing? • What is the importance of the native speaker in today’s L2 writing methodology? • What kind of competences should a EFL/ESL teacher have for L2 writing teaching?
• What kind of techniques should a ESL/EFL teacher use in order to avoid plagiarism? • What is the importance of contrative rethoric?