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Metal Forming Analysis Of

Extrusion

Lecture_20
Direct Extrusion through a conical die

• The pressure required for direct extrusion


of a rod has two components:

• 1. Pressure required to deform the metal through


the conical die
• 2. Pressure required to overcome friction between
the billet and the container
• So, extrusion pressure
 can be found by deriving an expression
using the same approach which has been used
to predict in wire drawing through a
conical die.
If we do a similar analysis for extrusion, we
arrive at:
1
• (or)

• (or)

• R is Extrusion Ratio
Differences:
I. The boundary condition changes to:
At ; ;

II. To calculate

At ; ;
III. In the final equation

changes to
IV. In the analysis of drawing we have
assumed tensile stresses to be +ve since
is compressive the value of will
come out to be −ve in equation 1.

V. Ignoring the sign, magnitude of


should be added to since both are
compressive.
To estimate
• Let be the additional pressure applied
on the billet to overcome friction.

• For hot extrusion

• K-Y.S. in pure shear


• The above equation can not be used for flat
dies.

• For flat and conical dies, can be


found out by using empirical equation like:
• a and b are constants which
depend upon the die geometry
and material of extrusion.
• For example, for extrusion of
steel,
• a=0.4 to 0.95 ; b=1.0 to 1.5
• Depending on the value of
Direct
extrusion

(area of the trillet)

Indirect
extrusion

Impact
extrusion

(area of the trillet)


Extrusion force and power

• Extrusion force

Extrusion
speed