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Participants, Measures, Procedure

20 (19 female) who
72 undergraduate met DSM-IV criteria
students for past or present
GAD in adulthood

20 (15 female) with 11 (9 female) with

past or present past or present
adult PD adult GAD and PD

21 (16 female)
without any
60 of 72 participants (83,3%)
defined as Caucasian, 6
Ages ranged from 18 to 41 (8.4%) as Asian-American, 5
years with mean 21 years (6.9%) as African- American,
and 1 (1.4%) as

Fisher's tests showed no

differences between 4 groups ANOVA also revealed no
on distribution of gender and group differences in age


• 9-item self-report scale based on • 22-item self-report
DSM-IV criteria for GAD questionnaire based on DSM-IV
• It has high internal consistency criteria for panic disorder
(α = .94) • The measure has high internal
• convergent and divergent consistency (α = .96)
validity • good retest reliability as well as
• moderate 2-week retest discriminant and convergent
reliability validity
• The Household Composition in Childhood questionnaire
was created to assess presence of mother and father
figures during childhood
• Participants were asked to name their female and male
attachment figures before age 18 and report whether
they had sufficient contact (at least 6 months) with
them between ages 3 and 12, and to complete a
questionnaire assessing their relationship
• They also indicated if there was a time before age 18
when they did not have at least one male or female
attachment figure living with them, and if so, to explain
the circumstances, to assess familial loss through
death or separation
• Current, past adulthood, and childhood mental disorders
were assessed using two structured clinical interviews
based on DSM-IV criteria:
- The Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, IV, Lifetime
Version (ADIS-IV-L; and a modified version of the Anxiety
Disorders Interview Schedule, IV, for Children, Parent Version
- The ADIS-IV-L assessed current and past DSM-IV
disorders in adults since age 18. It has good to excellent
levels of inter-rater reliability
The ADIS-IV-C/P is
viewed as the Inter-rater and retest
“premier instrument” reliabilities were high
for assessing anxiety for both the child and
in childhood and parent versions

For the purpose of this

This modified parent
study, modules on the
interview was employed
ADIS- IV-C/P were
because its questions are
revised to address “you”
geared toward child
(the subject) instead of
expression of symptoms.
“your child”

All interviews using ADIS-IV-

L and ADIS-IV-C/P were Inter-rater reliability for
audiotaped, and later a both adult and child GAD
separate blind assessor and PD diagnoses was
rescored a randomly high with kappa values
selected subsample of 31 ranging from .71 to 1.
participants (43%)
• The Perception of Adult Attachment Questionnaire (PAAQ) is a 60-
item measure rated on a 5-point Likert scale from “strongly disagree”
to “strongly agree.”
• It assesses two aspects of attachment:

perception of early
childhood current state of
experiences with a mind with respect
primary caregiver to attachment
(usually mother)
- Perceptions of childhood relationships with a caretaker are assessed on three
dimensional scales:
1. rejection/neglect
2. being love
3. role-reversal/enmeshment
- Current state of mind is assessed on five scales:
1. vulnerable
2. balancing-forgiving
3. angry
4. dismissing/derogating
5. lacking in memory

Participants were
This study was Advanced
recruited from A questionnaire
approved by the psychology classes
introductory and asking about
IRB, and all completed the same
advanced interest in being
participants screening measures
psychology classes referred for free
consented to verbally via a phone
at a rural state psychotherapy
participate screen
Those who agreed Current or past
For clinical adult ADIS-IV-L
to participate Participants
groups, required diagnoses of PD and
were interviewed returned to the
to be interested in GAD since age 18
by a trained lab approximately
being assessed for were used to assign
doctoral student a week after the
an anxiety participants to one
using the ADIS-IV- of four groups (GAD, interview to
disorder and
L and the PD, comorbid GAD- complete the
being referred for
modified ADIS-IV- PD, and non- PAAQ
free treatment
C/P disordered controls)