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Teknologi ramah lingkungan

Rizal Munadi
“Pengetahuan Lingkungan dan Kebencanaan”
Semester Genap 2012/2013
Teknik Elektro Unsyiah
How much oxygen does a person
consume in a day?
• The average adult at rest inhales and exhales
something like 7 or 8 liters (about one-fourth of a cubic
foot) of air per minute.
• That totals something like 11,000 liters of air (388 cubic
feet) in a day.
• The air that is inhaled is about 20-percent oxygen, and
the air that is exhaled is about 15-percent oxygen, so
about 5-percent of the volume of air is consumed in
each breath and converted to carbon dioxide.
• Therefore, a human being uses about 550 liters of pure
oxygen (19 cubic feet) per day.
• Kalau melihat fakta Oksigen yang diberikan Allah
kepada manusia, apakah patut kita tidak mensyukuri
nikmatnya?
• Oksigen adalah salah satu anugerah, bagaimana
dengan lainnya?
• Lihat surat Ar-Rahman dalam Al Quran, diulang
sebanyak 31 kali, “nikmat manakah yang kamu dustai”.
• “ Dan Allah mengeluarkan kamu dari perut ibumu
dalam keadaan tidak mengetahui sesuatupun, dan dia
memberi kamu pendengaran, penglihatan dan hati,
agar kamu bersyukur.” (Quran, An-Nahl, ayat 78)
78% nitrogen

20.6% oxygen

< 1% argon

0.4% water
vapor

0.036% carbon
dioxide

traces gases:
Ne, He, Kr, H, O3
Methane, Nitrous
Oxide
Greenhouse
• A building with transparent walls and roof, usually of
glass, for the cultivation and exhibition of plants under
controlled conditions
• Greenhouse gases are those that can absorb and emit
infrared radiation[1], but not radiation in or near the
visible spectrum. In order, the most abundant
greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are:
– water vapour (H2O)
– carbon dioxide (CO2)
– methane (CH4)
– nitrous oxide (N2O)
– ozone (O3)
1http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_gas
Electromagnetic Spectrum
incoming outgoing
The “Greenhouse Effect”

 The Earth’s surface thus receives energy


from two sources: the sun & the
atmosphere
– As a result the Earth’s surface is ~33C warmer than it would
be without an atmosphere

Greenhouse gases are transparent to


shortwave but absorb longwave radiation
– Thus the atmosphere stores energy
Greenhouse Gases
• The primary components of Earth’s atmosphere, N2 and O2 do
not have absorption in the IR wavelength range, therefore, do
not have a significant role in setting the surface temperature
of the planet…
• Greenhouse gas are efficient in absorbing IR light…
The most important greenhouse gases are:
– H2O – Water vapor.
– CO2 – Carbon Dioxide
– CH4 – methane
The most abundant greenhouse gas in Earth’s atmosphere is
water vapor. Most of the greenhouse heating of Earth’s
atmosphere is due to Water vapor absorption of IR
radiation emitted by Earth, and then transferring the
energy to the surrounding air molecule
1. Shorter, high
Energy wavelengths
Hit the earths
Surface

2. Incoming energy
Is converted to heat
3. Longer, infrared
Wavelengths hit
Greenhouse gas
Molecules in the
atmosphere

4. Greenhouse gas
Molecules in the
Atmosphere emit
Infrared radiation
Back towards earth
Selected Greenhouse Gases
• Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
– Source: Fossil fuel burning, deforestation
 Anthropogenic increase: 30%

 Average atmospheric residence time: 500 years

 Methane (CH4)
– Source: Rice cultivation, cattle & sheep ranching, decay
from landfills, mining
 Anthropogenic increase: 145%

 Average atmospheric residence time: 7-10 years

 Nitrous oxide (N2O)


– Source: Industry and agriculture (fertilizers)
 Anthropogenic increase: 15%

 Average atmospheric residence time: 140-190 years


Summary (1)

Greenhouse gases absorb infrared radiation and prevent


it from escaping to space.

Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide are very


good
at capturing energy at wavelengths that other
compounds
miss
Greenhouse Effect & Global Warming

• The “greenhouse effect” & global


warming are not the same thing.
– Global warming refers to a rise in the temperature of the
surface of the earth

• An increase in the concentration of


greenhouse gases leads to an
increase in the the magnitude of the
greenhouse effect. (Called enhanced
greenhouse effect)
– This results in global warming
Radiation is not evenly distributed over the
Surface of the earth. The northern latitudes have an
energy deficit and the low latitude/ equator has an
excess. But the low latitudes don’t indefinitely get hotter
and the northern latitudes don’t get colder.

Why?

The atmosphere and ocean transfer energy from low


latitudes to high
Contrails and Climate
Contrails are artificial clouds made by the
exhaust of the aircraft engines, or the
wingtip vortices
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contrail)
. Contrails produced by the heavy air
traffic over the US may have
noticeable influences on the weather…
• Commercial air traffic were suspended
for three days after the Sept. 11, 2001
attack. This provided a rare chance for
the climate scientist to test their
theory…
• Measurements show that without
contrails the local difference of day
and night-time temperatures was
about 1 degree Celsius higher than
immediately before the attack…
Global Warming
There is a gradual increase in
the average temperature of the
Earth’s atmosphere in the last
100 years…It has risen about
1°C since 1900…
• Are human activities
causing global warming?
• What other (non-human)
factors can cause global
warming?
• How does global warming
affect our life?
Just watch the movies…
Green technology
• Green technology is a popular term used to describe
technology developed to monitor, model and conserve
the natural environment and resources.
• These technologies can include:
– renewable energies,
– recycling technologies,
– water/air purification,
– environmental remediation,
– waste management, and even statistical forecasting
software.
Types of Green Technology
• Air Purification – Technologies that remove carbon dioxide and other
harmful green house gases from the air, particularly indoors.
• Energy Conservation – Technologies that conserve energy in order to
reduce the amount of electricity used to power something.
• Environmental Remediation – Technologies that remove pollutants or
contaminants from water or soil, particularly after a spill or leak.
• eGain Forecasting – Technologies that predicts the weather’s impact
on a building to adjust the use of heat and conserve energy.
• Renewable Energy – Technologies that replenish energy without the
use of fossil fuels by using things like the sun, wind or geothermal
power sources.
• Waste Management – Technologies that purify water levels or dispose
and treat solid waste without negatively impacting the environment.
Green Technology Initiatives
• Green technology adoption has been largely
driven through government initiatives to
promote a cleaner environment.
• Solar subsidies are perhaps the most obvious
example of such initiatives designed to
promote green technology.
• Carbon trading schemes, such as the cap-and-
trade approach, also represent government-
led initiatives to promote green technology.
Green Technologies: Electric Cars with
Hydrogen Fuel Cells

In 2003 the NECAR 5 crossed the U.S. in 12 days, proving that fuel cell cars
could go the distance. (Image: DaimlerChrysler)
• Mike Strizki, an engineer at Renewable Energy International, Inc.
and Advanced Solar Products, Inc., built a pollution-free power
system for his home, using 56 solar panels and an electrolyzer to
pull hydrogen out of water, which he then stores in tanks on his
property.
• The solar panels provide 160 percent of the electricity needs of the
home during the summer and 60 percent of such needs during the
winter. Seasonal power management builds a supply of hydrogen
during the summer for use during the winter. And, sufficient
hydrogen is available to power vehicles and household appliances,
including hydrogen cooking, throughout the year.
• He has more than enough energy to power his hot tub, swimming
pool, big-screen TV and hydrogen fuel cell cars. (Photo : Renewable
Energy International)
Asus' Bamboo Series Of Laptops
Example of Green Technology
• the solar cell
• the reusable water bottle
• Green Lighting
• What else?
Green lighting
• One of the most widely available green lighting
products are compact fluorescent lightbulbs,
which can lower energy consumption, reduce
greenhouse gas emissions and help you save on
your electric bill. For outdoor lighting, consider
choosing LED solar lighting, such as those offered
by GreenHome.com, which generate light
without the use of electrical power. Skylights are
also an eco-friendly way to introduce natural light
into your home.
Go Green - If Not For Love Then Profit
• Inventors should know that green inventions
and clean technologies are good business.
These are fast growing markets with growing
profits.
• Consumers should know that buying green
inventions can reduce your energy bill and
that green inventions are often safer and
healthier products.
Green Building
• A green building is a structure that was
conceived, planned and executed in a
resource efficient and environmentally
responsible way.
• A green building will use only renewable
resources and strive to be self-sufficient
throughout its life cycle.
Exploring electronic developments in
Green Technology
• The last year has seen worldwide investments
into clean energy rise by 4.4% and in 2008
inward investment exceeded US$150billion for
the first time.
• It is clear that next generation energy will
have an impact on both static and mobile
applications and nanotechnology holds the
promise to provide a significant number of
advances in clean and renewable energy.
• A number of green energy solutions and
nanoelectrical products including energy
efficient batteries, electrochemical reactions
and nanoscaled technology such as quantum
dots.
Product and Green Technology
• The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and
the Department of Energy have a joint
program called Energy Star that identifies
energy-efficient products,
• Other examples of green cleaning products
are those labeled "certified biodegradable;“
• Green cars are energy-efficient and create
limited air pollution and greenhouse gases.
Our dream ….
Tugas
• Tulis artikel tentang pentingnya Green Technology.
• Apa syarat yang harus dipenuhi agar termasuk produk
“green”
• Identifikasi produk yang memenuhi “green
technology”
• Can you easily recognize a green building? Apakah ada
di Banda Aceh atau di Indonesia?
• Is a green building more expensive to build?
• Is a green building automatically a good feng shui
building?

Dikumpulkan paling lambat: 8 Maret 2013 Jam 23.55 WIB melalui elearning.