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FUNDAMENTALS OF

VISUAL INSPECTION

A.GANESH
CMS/ AWTI/ICF
OBJECTIVES

 Visual Inspection – Introduction


 Why visual inspection in welding.
 Requirements for visual inspection.
 Visual examination of welds in brief.
 Standards.
IMPORTANCE OF
VISUAL INSPECTION

• First in the chain


• Simple
• Essential
• Preventive in nature
• Critical for decision making
• Can be supplemented
• Eliminates costly repairs
VISUAL EXAMINATION -
INTRODUCTION
 Most widely used method of all non destructive tests.
 VT is applicable to virtually any material , at any stage
of manufacture, at any point in its service life.
 VT is the most preliminary stage inspection.
 Inspection by naked eye or with the help of visual
aids.
 Principle: Illuminate the object / surface and then
examine with eye or with help of visual devices.
 Proper visual testing will enhance the production,
quality, profit and of course customer’s satisfaction
WHY VISUAL TESTING IN WELDING
 Old proverb – Prevention is better than cure.
 VT done in each stage to prevent failures.

 Most NDT methods ultimately involve visual


tests.
REQUIREMENTS FOR VISUAL INSPECTION
 Qualified Visual Inspector.

 Visual aids, measuring devices .

 Reference drawings and qualified procedures.

 Acceptance standards.
REQUIREMENTS FOR VISUAL INSPECTOR
 Eye (Vision).
 Vision acuity – Periodical check
Near vision – J1 or J2 at 12” distance
Far vision – 6/6m (20/20 feet)
Colour blindness – check once in three years

o Physical Condition:

Physical fitness – capable of inspecting welded


structures that requires physical strain to reach the
weldment.
REQUIREMENTS FOR VISUAL INSPECTOR

 Technical Ability
 Interpretation of drawings and specifications
 Process Knowledge.

 Welding processes
 Joint types, weld defects.
 Safety and hazard knowledge.
 Training and experience.
 Knowledge of examining methods.
 Knowledge of using gages & measuring instruments.

 Integrity
VISUAL AIDS
 Magnifying glasses & Mirrors

 Fibrescopes, Borescopes

 Portable video inspection,


robotic crawlers
MEASURING DEVICES
REFERENCE DRAWINGS & QUALIFIED
PROCEDURES
 Assembly drawings
 Part drawings

 Welding procedure specification (WPS).

 Welder qualification reports.

Codes, Standards & Specifications


ASME, AWS, IS, ISO, EN

AWS B1.11- Guide for visual examination of welds


ASME BPVC - Sec V, Article - 9
ISO 17637 – Visual testing of fusion welded joints (Earlier EN970)
Acceptance standard : ISO 5817
VISUAL INSPECTION AS PER
ISO:17637
 Lighting Conditions
 Light intensity of minimum 350 lux. But 500lux is recommended.

 Viewing angle
 Shall not be less than 30o from the surface

 Viewing distance
 Within 600mm from the examination surface

600mm
(max)

30° (min.)
VISUAL INSPECTION AS PER
ISO:17637

 Recommends personnel qualification as per ISO: 9712.

 Inspector shall have access to necessary inspection


and production documents.

 Stages of visual inspection on welds.


 Before welding
 During Welding
 After Welding
VISUAL INSPECTION AS PER
ISO:17637
 Visual testing of joint preparation before welding
 Shape & dimensions of weld joint
 Review of drgs & specs.
 Cleanliness of fusion faces
 Parts correctly fixed as per drawing – Joint Fit up
 Groove angle, Tack weld, backing etc.,
 Scrutiny of base metal test reports, WPS & WPQ
 Pre- heat
VISUAL INSPECTION AS PER
ISO:17637

 Visual testing during welding


 Cleanliness on each run
 Checking for visible imperfections
 Transitions between runs & between weld and
parent metal
 Depth & shape of gouging if any is in accordance
with WPS
 After any necessary repairs, the weld conforms
to original requirements of WPS
 Welding sequence, Interpass cleaning, Interpass
temp.
VISUAL INSPECTION AS PER
ISO:17637
 Visual testing of finished weld
 Acceptance criteria ISO 5817 or ISO 10042.
 Cleaning and dressing
 Profile dimensions (weld length, size etc)
 Weld root and surfaces
 Post weld heat treatment

 Visual testing of repair welds


 Partially removed weld
 Completely removed weld
VISUAL INSPECTION AS PER
ISO:17637

 Test records: Information that should be included


 Name of component manufacturer
 Name of testing body
 Identity of object material
 Material
 Type of Joint
 Material thickness
 Welding process
 Acceptance criteria
 Imperfections exceeding acc. Criteria
 Test devices used
 Result of testing with reference to acceptance criteria
 Name of inspector and date of test
MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

 Measuring tape – 1mm or finer

 Vernier calipers

 Feeler gauge – 0.1mm to 3mm

 Radius gauge
MEASURING INSTRUMENTS –
WELD GAUGES

 Simple weld gauge

 Set of welding gauges

 Weld gauge with vernier


MEASURING INSTRUMENTS –
WELD GAUGES

 Self made weld gauge

 Three scale weld gauge

 Gauge for checking profile of


fillet welds
MEASURING INSTRUMENTS –
WELD GAUGES

 Multipurpose gauge

 Universal weld gauge

 Gap gauge

 Hook gauge for misalignment.


VISUAL PERCEPTION
 Visual perception : This means how the brain
interprets the supplied information and forms the
impression
 Visual perception is affected by fatigue ,disease,
optical disorder, lack of training, THE MOST
ERROR comes due to misinterpretation of the brain
with the supplied information because of mind
preconditioning.
 Brain make decision based on visual clues of light
and shadow .Usually in two dimensional image of
three dimensional object ,and in the case of paintings
etc ,this factor is very important
 Human visual perception occurs in two ways .First
preattentive processing in which entire field of vision
is focused. Secondly focus is localized to specific
objects.
VISUAL PERCEPTION
 Illusion:(a)Linear line or crack like indication
present at the borders of areas with very
different colors or shades.
 (b)Grey dots appear at the intersection of white
lines with black boxes,
 (c)Diverging parallel lines appears to bow inward
.Converging lines and diverging lines appears to
indicate distance.
 (d) reversal or inversion of the image may create
disorientation,
VT PATTERN RECOGNITION
 Bright objects appears to
be larger than the dark
objects of same size,
 Circle seems to be smaller
than the other objects of
same dimension. ,
 St lines appears to be
longer or shorter, Acute
angles appear to be larger
and obtuse angles appear
to be smaller
THE RED SQUARES ARE THE SAME COLOR IN THE
UPPER PART AND IN THE LOWER PART OF THE "X"
THE DIAGONAL LINES ARE PARALLEL.
THE SQUARE SEEN AS DISTORTED
THE ROWS OF BLACK AND WHITE
SQUARES ARE ALL PARALLEL.

 The vertical zigzag patterns disrupt our horizontal


perception.
THE RADIATING LINES INFLUENCE OUR
PERCEPTION OF THE PARALLEL LINES.
THE CIRCLE AND THE SQUARES APPEAR DISTORTED
BY THE BACKGROUND PATTERNS.
THE VERTICAL LINES ARE BOTH THE SAME LENGTH.

The diagonal lines A-B and B-C are equal in length.


THE SHADE OF THE CENTER DOT IS THE
SAME IN ALL THE SQUARES.

 The shade of the background influences how we perceive


it. All circles are uniformly shaded, but each circle seems
lighter on its left than on its right .
THERE ARE ONLY WHITE CIRCLES AT THE
INTERSECTIONS
SUMMARY

 Visual Inspection – Importance


 Visual Inspection – Requirements

 Visual Inspection Standards

 Stages of visual Inspection

 Documentation.

 Visual perception