You are on page 1of 46

GMAW & FCAW

ELECTRODES

D.SELVAKUMARAN SSE/AWTI
GMAW
Gas Metal Arc Welding /
Gas shielded Arc Welding

MIG MAG
Metal Inert Gas Welding Metal Active Gas Welding

Argon, Helium. CO2 or Argon+CO2 mixed gas.


Non-Ferrous metals Ferrous metals - All types of
Aluminum, Copper steels
GMAW
Gas Metal Arc Welding - GMAW
 Wire is continuously fed from a spool.
 high deposition rate
 semiautomatic welding process
 High current density
 Self adjusting arc
 Different modes of metal transfer
 Gas mixtures can be used
 Higher welding speed
 All position capability
 Less operator skill required
 Long welds can be made without starts and stops
 Low heat input
 Easy to automate
 Minimal post weld cleaning is required
Equipment for GMAW process
 DC Current is required for GMAW
process
 a. Transformer /Rectifier/inverter/IGBT
power sources are mainly used.
 b. They are designed to have a constant
Voltage characteristics (Flat Type).
 c. The welding is carried out on DCEP.
 d. A wire feed unit with variable wire
feed speed settings is used.
 e. Here welding current is directly
related to the wire feed rates.
Therefore, for attaining high deposition
rates the wire is fed at higher feed rates.
Equipment for GMAW process
- Euro adapter
- Cable
- Liner
- Gas diffuser
- Contact tip
- Nozzle
CONSTANT VOLTAGE
CHARACTERISTICS

VOLTAGE

20 V
ARC
VOLTAGE

CURRENT
Basic welding parameters in
GMAW
The basic parameters which require to be set in GMAW
process are
 Current ( amps )
 Voltage ( volts )
 Shielding gas flow rate. ( litres / min )
 Stick out
 Torch angle
 Welding speed
Basic welding parameters in
GMAW
Current ( amps )
 Linked with wire speed
 Matching Amount Wire pushed & burning rate
Voltage ( volts )
 Less voltage gives peaked bead
 More voltage spreads the bead; more flat bead
Basic welding parameters in GMAW
Shielding Gas
 shields the arc and molten weld pool
 stabilizes the arc
 allows smooth transfer of metal
Basic welding parameters in
GMAW
The primary shielding gasses used are:
 Argon
 co2
 Argon - 1 to 5% Oxygen
 Argon - 3 to 25% CO2
 Argon/Helium
Basic welding parameters in
GMAW
Shielding gas flow rate
 Required to prevent oxidation
 Low & high flow rate results in porosity
 Should be matched with deposition rate
Basic welding parameters in
GMAW
Stick out
 Longer stick out reduces penetration
 Longer stick out increases dposition
 For Higher parameter (V,I) more stick out
Mode of metal transfer
 Short circuiting transfer
 Globular transfer
 Spray transfer
Short circuiting / Dip transfer
Short circuiting transfer

 Low current - low voltage used to produce short


circuiting arc, freq. 70 times /second.
 Used for sheet metal and positional welding 16-22
volts.
Globular transfer
Globular transfer

 An intermediate stage between dip and spray transfer


 droplet sizes are more than the wire dia
 Produces excessive spatter and erratic arc behaviour.
Spray transfer
Spray transfer
 Higher currents and voltage used, droplet size
same as or lower than the wire diameter.
 weld pool of low viscosity
 About 100 to 300 droplets transferred per second
 Higher deposition rate penetration and fluidity of
the molten pool , increases the productivity
 24-38 volts.
Pulse Spray transfer
Pulse Spray transfer

 Controlled method of spray transfer. Heat input to the


job is controlled by low background current with high
pulses using special type of equipment.
 In synergic pulsed systems wire feed rate synchronised
with pulsed current to control individual droplet
detachment.
Mode of metal transfer
Electrode wire size Current (amps)
(mm)

Short Arc Spray Arc

0.8 50 150

1.2 100 240

1.6 175 300

2.4 --- 400


BASIC WELDING PARAMETERS IN GMAW PROCESS

 If the wire feed speed is too high the wire will not be melted fast
enough and will pass through the arc hitting the plate, which is
known as stubbing. The resultant weld is peaky with little fusion
and a lot of spatter.
Selection of Arc Voltage
Factors to be considered:
• Wire speed/Current
• Mode of metal transfer
• Shielding gas
• Stand - off distance

Empirical relationships:
V = 14 + (0.04 x I ) For short arc
V = 16 + (0.04 x I ) For spray arc
Self-regulation of the arc
 Constant voltage or
potential power sources
 The current adjusts itself to 20 V
burn off rate ARC
 for a small change in arc VOLTAGE
length there is a large
change in welding current
which makes it quite
sensitive and helps in CURRENT
maintaining a steady arc
length which gives
consistent quality welds.
 This is called self-
regulation of the arc length
and is a requirement for
success of GMAW welding.
MIG Welding Problems

 Heavily oxidized weld deposit


 Irregular wire feed
 Burnback
 Porosity
Classification of Carbon steel consumable
electrode wires
 AWS A 5.18 : Carbon steel electrodes and rods for Gas
shielded arc welding
 Classification based on Composition, mechanical properties
and shielding gas used.
CLASSIFICATION OF ELECTRODES FOR GMAW (AWS 5.18)

ER70S-6MNHZ
Electrode

Rod

UTS
S- solid wire
70X000
Psi C- composite

2 – 6 Chemical
Composition
GS – single pass
M – Argon + CO2 or
only
C – CO2
N – Nuclear application
HZ – hydrogen designator
H16 means 16ml/100g of deposit
Classification of Carbon steel consumable
electrode wires meant for CO2 welding
applications [ AWS A5.18 ]

E70S-6
E - electrode wire
70 - UTS
S - Solid wire
6 - Chemical composition of the wire
Chemical Composition filler wire in weight %
(Wire: ER 70S6 AWS A5.18)

C: 0.07-0.15
Mn: 1.4-1.8
Si: 0.8-1.15
S: 0.035
P: 0.025
SPECIFICATION BARE STAINLESS STEEL
WELDING ELECTRODES AND RODS
(AWS 5.9)
 AWS A 5.9 : Solid wire electrode or rods for GMAW or SAW or
others
 Classification based on Composition, alloying elements
CLASSIFICATION OF ELECTRODES FOR GMAW - Stainless Steel
(AWS 5.9)

ER309L
Electrode

Rod

Chemical composition/
Grades of filler metal
L – low carbon
Si, Mo, Nb – alloying
element
IRS M46
Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
Flux cored arc welding (FCAW):
•electrode is a continuous, consumable, tubular containing flux.
•The flux provides
•alloying
•arc stability
•slag cover
•de-oxidation
•gas shielding with some wires.
•The area of the flux cored wire is much smaller that than that of
a solid MIG wire. This means that the electrical resistance of
the flux cored wire is higher than with solid MIG wires (for same
wire size)
FCAW
Self-shielded FCAW:
•arc shielding provided by the flux core.
•Basic type flux
Gas shielded FCAW:
•Shielding by externally supplied
gases.
•hybrid of SMAW and GMAW
•basic or rutile flux
Advantages
 High deposition rates
 Deeper penetration
than SMAW
 High-quality
 Less pre-cleaning than
GMAW
 out-of-position welds
 Self-shielded FCAW is
draft tolerant.
Low alloy steel FCAW Electrode
Classification AWS A5.29

E81 T1 – W2
Electrode
Minimum UTS usability Weathering
80,000 psi steel
0 – Flat, Horizontal Type Gas, Usability
1 – all position and Performance
Flux Cored /Tubular
C – CO2
Electrode
3 - ‘no gas
M – ACM
‘ ‘ - Self shielded
STAINLESS STEEL FCAW Electrode
Classification AWS A5.22

E309 T1 - 1
Electrode
Position Type Gas, Usability
0- F,H
Chemical composition and Performance
1- all
1 – CO2
3 - ‘no gas
Flux Cored /Tubular 4 – ACM
Electrode 5 – 100% Argon (TIG)
G – not specified