L APL ACE
TRANSFORMS
AN INTRODUCTION
BY: KIM ANGELO GONZALES
PIERRESIMON, MARQUIS DE
LAPLACE
• was a French scholar whose work was important to
the development
of engineering, mathematics, statistics, physicsand ast
ronomy.
where:
• Go from time argument with real input to a complex angular
frequency input which is complex.
RESTRICTIONS
• If f(t) is not bounded by Meγt then the integral will not converge.
LAPLACE TRANSFORM
THEORY
•General Theory
•Example
•Convergence
DEFINITION
• Transforms  a mathematical conversion from one way of thinking to
another to make a problem easier to solve
Problem
in original
way of
thinking
solution inverse
transform in transform transform
way of
thinking
Solution in
original
way of
thinking
2. Transforms
Problem
in time
domain
Inverse
Laplace Solution Laplace
Transform in Transform
s domain
Solution in
time
• Other transforms domain
• Fourier
• ztransform
• wavelets
2. Transforms
LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION
Time Domain
Linear Time
Differential Domain
equation Solution
Laplace transform
Inverse Laplace
Transform
Laplace Algebra Laplace
Transformed
solution
Equation
Laplace domain or
complex frequency domain
4. Laplace transforms
BASIC TOOL FOR CONTINUOUS
TIME: LAPLACE TRANSFORM
L[ f (t )] F (s) f (t )e dt st
0
• Convert timedomain functions and operations into
frequencydomain
– f(t) F(s) (tR, sC)
– Linear differential equations (LDE) algebraic expression in
Complex plane
• Graphical solution for key LDE characteristics
• Discrete systems use the analogous ztransform
THE COMPLEX PLANE
(REVIEW)
Imaginary axis (j)
u x jy
y r u tan 1 y
x
Real axis
x  u  r  u  x y
2 2
r
y
u x jy
(complex) conjugate
LAPLACE TRANSFORMS OF
COMMON FUNCTIONS
Name f(t) F(s)
1 t 0
Impulse f (t ) 1
0 t 0
1
Step f (t ) 1
s
1
Ramp f (t ) t
s2
1
Exponential f (t ) e at
sa
1
Sine f (t ) sin( t )
2 s2
LAPLACE TRANSFORM
PROPERTIES
Addition/Scaling L[af1 (t ) bf 2 (t )] aF1 ( s ) bF2 ( s )
d
Differenti ation L f (t ) sF ( s ) f (0)
dt
Integratio n
L f (t )dt
F ( s) 1
s
f (t )dt
s
t 0
t
Convolution f (t τ)f (τ )dτ F (s) F (s)
0
1 2 1 2
S I M P L E T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S
TRANSFORMS
• Impulse  (to)
= esto
f(t)
(to)
4. Laplace transforms
TRANSFORMS
• Step  u (to)
= esto/s
f(t)
1 u (to)
4. Laplace transforms
TRANSFORMS
• eat
= 1/(s+a)
4. Laplace transforms
TRANSFORMS
Linearity
f1(t) f2(t) F1(s) ± F2(s)
Constant
multiplication a f(t) a F(s)
4. Laplace transforms
TRANSFORMS
4. Laplace transforms
L APL ACE
TRANSFORMS
PA R T I A L F R A C T I O N E X PA N S I O N
DEFINITION
• Definition  Partial fractions are several fractions whose sum equals a
given fraction
• Purpose  Working with transforms requires breaking complex fractions
into simpler fractions to allow use of tables of transforms
PARTIAL FRACTION
EXPANSIONS
s 1 A B
• Expand into a term for each
( s 2) ( s 3) s 2 s 3 factor in the denominator.
• Recombine RHS
s 1 A( s 3) Bs 2)
( s 2) ( s 3) ( s 2) ( s 3)
• Equate terms in s and
constant terms. Solve.
A B 1 3 A 2 B 1
• Each term is in a form so
s 1 1 2 that inverse Laplace
transforms can be applied.
( s 2) ( s 3) s 2 s 3
EXAMPLE OF SOLUTION OF AN
ODE
d2y dy • ODE w/initial conditions
6 8 y 2 y ( 0) y ' ( 0) 0
dt 2 dt
• Apply Laplace transform to
s Y ( s ) 6s Y ( s ) 8 Y ( s ) 2 / s
2
each term
• Solve for Y(s)
2
Y ( s)
s ( s 2) ( s 4)
• Apply partial fraction
1 1 1 expansion
Y ( s)
4s 2 ( s 2) 4 ( s 4) • Apply inverse Laplace
transform to each term
1 e 2t e 4t
y(t )
4 2 4
DIFFERENT TERMS OF 1ST
DEGREE
• To separate a fraction into partial fractions when its denominator can
be divided into different terms of first degree, assume an unknown
numerator for each fraction
• Example 
– (11x1)/(X2  1) = A/(x+1) + B/(x1)
– = [A(x1) +B(x+1)]/[(x+1)(x1))]
– A+B=11
– A+B=1
– A=6, B=5
REPEATED TERMS OF 1ST DEGREE
(1 OF 2)
• When the factors of the denominator are of the first degree but some
are repeated, assume unknown numerators for each factor
– If a term is present twice, make the fractions the corresponding term and
its second power
– If a term is present three times, make the fractions the term and its
second and third powers
3. Partial fractions
REPEATED TERMS OF 1ST DEGREE
(2 OF 2)
• Example 
– (x2+3x+4)/(x+1)3= A/(x+1) + B/(x+1)2 + C/(x+1)3
– x2+3x+4 = A(x+1)2 + B(x+1) + C
– = Ax2 + (2A+B)x + (A+B+C)
– A=1
– 2A+B = 3
– A+B+C = 4
– A=1, B=1, C=2
3. Partial fractions
DIFFERENT QUADRATIC
TERMS
• When there is a quadratic term, assume a numerator of the form Ax +
B
• Example 
– 1/[(x+1) (x2 + x + 2)] = A/(x+1) + (Bx +C)/ (x2 + x + 2)
– 1 = A (x2 + x + 2) + Bx(x+1) + C(x+1)
– 1 = (A+B) x2 + (A+B+C)x +(2A+C)
– A+B=0
– A+B+C=0
– 2A+C=1
– A=0.5, B=0.5, C=0
3. Partial fractions
REPEATED QUADRATIC
TERMS
• Example 
– 1/[(x+1) (x2 + x + 2)2] = A/(x+1) + (Bx +C)/ (x2 + x + 2) + (Dx +E)/
(x2 + x + 2)2
– 1 = A(x2 + x + 2)2 + Bx(x+1) (x2 + x + 2) + C(x+1) (x2 + x + 2) +
Dx(x+1) + E(x+1)
– A+B=0
– 2A+2B+C=0
– 5A+3B+2C+D=0
– 4A+2B+3C+D+E=0
– 4A+2C+E=1
– A=0.25, B=0.25, C=0, D=0.5, E=0
3. Partial fractions
APPLY INITIAL AND FINAL
VALUE THEOREMS TO THIS
EXAMPLE 2 • Laplace transform
Y ( s)
s ( s 2) ( s 4) of the function.
• Apply finalvalue
lim t f (t )
2 (0) 1
theorem
(0) (0 2) (0 4) 4
2 ( ) • Apply initialvalue
lim t 0 f (t ) 0 theorem
() ( 2) ( 4)
L APL ACE
TRANSFORMS
SOLUTION PROCESS
SOLUTION PROCESS (1 OF 8)
• Any nonhomogeneous linear differential equation with constant
coefficients can be solved with the following procedure, which reduces
the solution to algebra
4. Laplace transforms
SOLUTION PROCESS (2 OF 8)
• Step 1: Put differential equation into standard form
– D2 y + 2D y + 2y = cos t
– y(0) = 1
– D y(0) = 0
SOLUTION PROCESS (3 OF 8)
• Step 2: Take the Laplace transform of both sides
– L{D2 y} + L{2D y} + L{2y} = L{cos t}
SOLUTION PROCESS (4 OF 8)
• Step 3: Use table of transforms to express equation in sdomain
– L{D2 y} + L{2D y} + L{2y} = L{cos t}
– L{D2 y} = s2 Y(s)  sy(0)  D y(0)
– L{2D y} = 2[ s Y(s)  y(0)]
– L{2y} = 2 Y(s)
– L{cos t} = s/(s2 + 1)
– s2 Y(s)  s + 2s Y(s)  2 + 2 Y(s) = s /(s2 + 1)
SOLUTION PROCESS (5 OF
8)
• Step 4: Solve for Y(s)
– s2 Y(s)  s + 2s Y(s)  2 + 2 Y(s) = s/(s2 + 1)
– (s2 + 2s + 2) Y(s) = s/(s2 + 1) + s + 2
– Y(s) = [s/(s2 + 1) + s + 2]/ (s2 + 2s + 2)
– = (s3 + 2 s2 + 2s + 2)/[(s2 + 1) (s2 + 2s + 2)]
SOLUTION PROCESS (6 OF
8)
• Step 5: Expand equation into format covered by table
– Y(s) = (s3 + 2 s2 + 2s + 2)/[(s2 + 1) (s2 + 2s + 2)]
– = (As + B)/ (s2 + 1) + (Cs + E)/ (s2 + 2s + 2)
– (A+C)s3 + (2A + B + E) s2 + (2A + 2B + C)s + (2B +E)
– 1 =A + C
– 2 = 2A + B + E
– 2 = 2A + 2B + C
– 2 = 2B + E
– A = 0.2, B = 0.4, C = 0.8, E = 1.2
SOLUTION PROCESS (7 OF 8)
– (0.2s + 0.4)/ (s2 + 1)
– = 0.2 s/ (s2 + 1) + 0.4 / (s2 + 1)
– (0.8s + 1.2)/ (s2 + 2s + 2)
– = 0.8 (s+1)/[(s+1)2 + 1] + 0.4/ [(s+1)2 + 1]
SOLUTION PROCESS (8 OF 8)
• Step 6: Use table to convert sdomain to time domain
– 0.2 s/ (s2 + 1) becomes 0.2 cos t
– 0.4 / (s2 + 1) becomes 0.4 sin t
– 0.8 (s+1)/[(s+1)2 + 1] becomes 0.8 et cos t
– 0.4/ [(s+1)2 + 1] becomes 0.4 et sin t
– y(t) = 0.2 cos t + 0.4 sin t + 0.8 et cos t + 0.4 et sin t
OTHER LAPLACE PRACTICE
PROBLEMS:
Find the Laplace transforms of the given
functions.
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
SOLUTION:
• A)
• B)
C AND D ANSWERS:
• C)
• D)
PRACTICE INVERSE LAPLACE
TRANSFORM PROBLEMS:
Find the inverse transform of each of the
following.
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
SOLUTION:
• A)
• B)
C AND D ANSWERS:
• C)
• D)
L APL ACE
TRANSFORMS
IN ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Element Modeling
i(t) I(s)
+
v(t) _ V(s)
+
_
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Element Modeling
Resistance
+
+
v(t) = Ri(t) R v(t) Time Domain
_
_
+
+
V(s) = RI(s) R V(s) Complex Frequency Domain
_
_
+
I(s) +
V(s) = G V(s)
G_
_
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Element Modeling
Inductor
i(t)
+
di(t)
v
L t)= L
_ dt
+
I(s)
sL
Best for mesh VL(s)
_
VL(s) = sLI(s)  Li(0)
Li(0)
_ +
+
I(s)
i(0)
Best for nodal VL(s) s sL
_
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Capacitor
+
i(t)
1t
vc (t ) i(t )dt vc (0)
_
C0
+
I(s)
1
sC I(s) vc(0)
Mesh VC(s) VC(s) = +
+
VC(0) sC s
_
s
_
+
I(s)
1 vC(s)
Nodal vc(0)C sC
_
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Linear Transformer
M
+ +
_ _
di1 (t ) di (t )
v1 (t ) L1 M 2
dt dt
V1 ( s ) sL1 I1 ( s ) L1i1 (0) sMI 2 ( s ) Mi2 (0)
di2 (t ) di (t )
v2 (t ) L2 M 1
dt dt
L 1 i(0) + M i2 (0) L 2 i2 ( 0 )M +i1 (0)
V2 ( s ) sL2 I 2 ( s ) L2 i2 (0) sMI1 ( s ) Mi1 (0) _ + sM + _
+ +
V1 (s ) I 1 (s) sL 1 sL 2 V2 (s)
I 2 (s)
_ _
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Time domain to complex frequency domain
v 1 (0)
R! _ L2 R2
+ _
+ C1 v 2 (0) i2 (t) _
C2
VA(t) + VB (t)
_ L1
i1 (t) +
v 1 (0)
_ L2i2(0)
+ s +
_
R! sL 2 R2
1 1
sC 1 sC 2 _
v 2 (0)
+ +
VA(s) + s
VB(s)
_ _
sL 1
+
L1i1(0)
_
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Application:
Given the circuit below. Assume zero IC’s. Use Laplace to find vc(t).
The time domain circuit:
t=0 100
+
+
2u(t) V 0.001 F
v c(t)
_
_ Laplace circuit
t=0
2 1000 100
Vc ( s ) s s
+
1000
100 +
s 2 1000
I(s) s Vc(s)
s _
20
Vc ( s ) _
s( s 10)
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Application:
t=0
100
+
+
2 1000
I(s) s Vc(s)
s _
_
20 2 2
Vc ( s )
s( s 10) s s 10
vc ( t ) 2 2e 10t u( t )
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Application:
Given the circuit below. Assume vc(0) =  4 V. Use Laplace to find vc(t).
The time domain circuit:
t=0 100
+
+
2u(t) V 0.001 F
v c (t)
_
_
Laplace circuit:
t=0
100
2 4 1000 +
I ( s )100
s
1000
s s 2
+ s
I(s) _ Vc(s)
s _ 4
6 s
100I ( s ) + _
s 10
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Application:
t=0
100 1
2
1000
+ 100I ( s ) Vc ( s ) 0
+ s s
2
I(s) _ Vc(s)
s _ 4
s + 2 6
_
Vc ( s )
s s 10
2 4 s 20 A B
Vc ( s )
s( s 10) s s 10 Check the boundary conditions
3 vc(0) =  4 V
2 6
Vc ( s )
s s 10
vc(oo) = 2 V
v ( t ) 2 6e 10 t u( t )
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Application: Find i0(t) using Laplace
1 2 2H
+ i0 (t)
Time Domain 4u(t) 1 etu(t)
_ 1F
1 2 2s
+
Laplace 4 1
s I 1 (s) 1 I 2 (s) 1 I 3 (s)
_ s s+1
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Application: Find i0(t) using Laplace
1 2 2s
+
4 1
s I 1 (s) 1 I 2 (s) 1 I 3 (s)
_ s s+1
Mesh 1
( s 1) I 2 ( s) 4
I1 ( s )
s s s
( s 1) I1 ( s ) I 2 ( s ) 4
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Application: Find i0(t) using Laplace
1 2
+
4 1
s I 1 (s) 1 I 2 (s) 1 I 3 (s)
_ s s+1
Mesh 2
1 3s 1
I1 ( s ) I 2 ( s) I 3 ( s) 0
s s
1 3s 1 1
I1 ( s ) I 2 ( s) 0
s s s 1
s
I1 ( s ) ( 3 s 1) I 2 ( s )
s 1
( s 1) I1 ( s ) ( s 1)( 3 s 1) I 2 ( s ) s
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Application: Find i0(t) using Laplace
+
4 1
s I 1 (s) 1 I 2 (s) 1 I 3 (s)
_ s s+1
( s 1) I1 ( s ) I 2 ( s ) 4 Add these 2
equations
( s 1) I1 ( s ) ( s 1)( 3 s 1) I 2 ( s ) s
s ( 3 s 4) I 2 ( s ) s 4
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Application: Find i0(t) using Laplace
+
4 1
s I 1 (s) 1 I 2 (s) 1 I 3 (s)
_ s s+1
s( 3 s 4) I 2 ( s ) s 4
1 )( s 4)
I ( s) 3
1
3
2
2
s( s 4 ) s s 4
3 3
2 43t
i2 ( t ) [ 1 e ] u( t )
3
L APL ACE
TRANSFORMS
ADDITIONAL INFO:
TRANSFER FUNCTIONS
INTRODUCTION
• Definition  a transfer function is an expression that relates the
output to the input in the sdomain
r(t) y(t)
differential
equation
r(s) y(s)
transfer
function
5. Transfer functions
TRANSFER FUNCTION
feedback
H(s)
feedback, H(s)Y(s)
5. Transfer functions
EXAMPLE R
v(t) L
C
v(t) = R I(t) + 1/C I(t) dt + L di(t)/dt
V(s) I(s)
C s / (C L s2 + C R s + 1 )
5. Transfer functions
BLOCK DIAGRAM REDUCTION
Series
U
RULES Y U Y
G1 G2 G1 G 2
Parallel
U + Y
G1
U Y
+ G1 + G2
G2
Feedback
U + Y
G1 U Y
 G1 /(1+G1 G2)
G2
5. Transfer functions
RATIONAL LAPLACE
TRANSFORMS
A( s )
F (s)
B( s)
A( s ) a n s n ... a1 s a 0
B ( s ) bm s m ... b1 s b0
Poles : s* B ( s*) 0 (So, F ( s*) )
Zeroes : s* A( s*) 0 (So, F ( s*) 0)
Poles and zeroes are complex
Order of system # poles m
FIRST ORDER SYSTEM
Y ( s) K K
R( s) 1 K sT 1 sT
Reference
R(s )
E (s ) U (s ) 1 Y (s )
S K
1 sT
B(s ) 1
FIRST ORDER SYSTEM
Impulse Exponential
K
response
1 sT
Step response Step,
K K exponential

s s 1/ T
Ramp response
K KT KT Ramp,
  step,
s 2
s s 1 / T exponential
No oscillations (as seen by poles)
SECOND ORDER SYSTEM
Y ( s) K N2
Impulse response : 2 2
R( s ) Js Bs K s 2 N s N2
K
Undamped natural frequency : N
J
SECOND ORDER SYSTEM:
PARAMETERS
Interpreta tion of damping ratio
0 : Undamped oscillation (Re 0, Im 0)
0 1 : Underdamped (Re 0 Im)
1 : Overdamped (Re 0, Im 0)
1.75
0.75
0.5
0.25
d t r t pt s t
• Estimates the shape of the curve based on the foregoing points on the
x and y axis
• Typically applied to the following inputs
– Impulse
– Step
– Ramp
– Quadratic (Parabola)
EFFECT OF POLE LOCATIONS
Oscillations
(higherfreq)
Im(s)
U ( s) KI 1
G( s) Kp K p 1
E ( s) s Ti s
SUMMARY OF BASIC
CONTROL
• Proportional control
– Multiply e(t) by a constant
• PI control
– Multiply e(t) and its integral by separate constants
– Avoids bias for step
• PD control
– Multiply e(t) and its derivative by separate constants
– Adjust more rapidly to changes
• PID control
– Multiply e(t), its derivative and its integral by separate constants
– Reduce bias and react quickly
ROOTLOCUS ANALYSIS
L A P L A C E A P P L I C AT I O N S
INITIAL VALUE
• In the initial value of f(t) as t approaches 0 is given by
F(s) = 1/(s+1)
F(s) = 1/(s+1)
• Apply finalvalue
lim t f (t )
2 (0) 1
theorem
(0) (0 2) (0 4) 4
2 ( )
• Apply initialvalue
lim t 0 f (t ) 0 theorem
() ( 2) ( 4)
POLES
• The poles of a Laplace function are the values of s that make the
Laplace function evaluate to infinity. They are therefore the roots
of the denominator polynomial
• 10 (s + 2)/[(s + 1)(s + 3)] has a pole at s = 1 and a pole at s = 3
• Complex poles always appear in complexconjugate pairs
• The transient response of system is determined by the location of
poles7
6. Laplace applications
ZEROS
• The zeros of a Laplace function are the values of s that make the
Laplace function evaluate to zero. They are therefore the zeros of
the numerator polynomial
• 10 (s + 2)/[(s + 1)(s + 3)] has a zero at s = 2
• Complex zeros always appear in complexconjugate pairs
6. Laplace applications
STABILITY
• A system is stable if bounded inputs produce bounded outputs
• The complex splane is divided into two regions: the stable region,
which is the left half of the plane, and the unstable region, which is the
right half of the splane
splane x j
x x x
x
stable x unstable
L APL ACE
TRANSFORMS
FREQUENCY RESPONSE
INTRODUCTION
• Many problems can be thought of in the time domain, and solutions can
be developed accordingly.
• Other problems are more easily thought of in the frequency domain.
• A technique for thinking in the frequency domain is to express the
system in terms of a frequency response
7. Frequency response
DEFINITION
• The response of the system to a sinusoidal signal. The output of the
system at each frequency is the result of driving the system with a
sinusoid of unit amplitude at that frequency.
• The frequency response has both amplitude and phase
7. Frequency response
PROCESS
• The frequency response is computed by replacing s with j in the
transfer function
Example
f(t) = e t magnitude in dB
F(s) = 1/(s+1)
7. Frequency response
CONSTANT K
magnitude
60 dB
20 log10 K
40 dB
20 dB
0 dB
20 dB
40 dB
60 dB
phase
+180o
+90o arg K
0o
90o
180o
270o
0.1 1 10 100
, radians/sec
7. Frequency response
SIMPLE POLE OR ZERO AT ORIGIN, 1/
(J)
60 dB
N
magnitude
40 dB
20 dB
0 dB
20 dB 1/
40 dB
60 dB 1/ 3 1/ 2
phase
+180o
+90o
0o
1/
90o
180o 1/ 2
270o 1/ 3
0.1 1 10 100
, radians/sec
7. Frequency response
ERROR IN ASYMPTOTIC
APPROXIMATION
T dB arg (deg)
0.01 0 0.5
0.1 0.043 5.7
0.5 1 26.6
0.76 2 37.4
1.0 3 45.0
1.31 4.3 52.7
1.73 6.0 60.0
2.0 7.0 63.4
5.0 14.2 78.7
10.0 20.3 84.3
7. Frequency response
QUADRATIC POLE OR ZERO
magnitude
60 dB
40 dB
20 dB
0 dB
20 dB
40 dB
60 dB
phase
+180o
+90o
0o
90o
180o
270o
0.1 1 10 100
T
7. Frequency response
TRANSFER FUNCTIONS
• Apply deviation
T T T0 T1 T1 T0 T2 T2 T0 variables
y(t ) A e at B e pt sin( t ) C e dt
Im
Re
EXPONENTIAL DECAY
Im
Re
Time
DAMPED SINUSOIDAL
Im
Re
Time
EXPONENTIALLY GROWING
SINUSOIDAL BEHAVIOR
(UNSTABLE)
Im
Re
y
Time
WHAT KIND OF DYNAMIC
BEHAVIOR?
Im
Re
UNSTABLE BEHAVIOR
• If the output of a process grows without bound for a bounded input,
the process is referred to a unstable.
• If the real portion of any pole of a transfer function is positive, the
process corresponding to the transfer function is unstable.
• If any pole is located in the right half plane, the process is unstable.
THE END
•THANK YOU