You are on page 1of 112

# "ℒ"

L APL ACE
TRANSFORMS

AN INTRODUCTION
BY: KIM ANGELO GONZALES
PIERRE-SIMON, MARQUIS DE
LAPLACE
• was a French scholar whose work was important to
the development
of engineering, mathematics, statistics, physicsand ast
ronomy.

## • Began work in calculus which led to the

Laplace Transform

## • One of the first scientists to suggest the

existence of black holes

## • Laplace formulated Laplace's equation, and

pioneered the Laplace transform which appears in
many branches of mathematical physics, a field that
he took a leading role in forming.
• The Laplacian differential operator, widely used in
mathematics, is also named after him.
• In mathematics, the Laplace transform is an integral transform named
after its inventor Pierre-Simon Laplace (/ləˈplɑːs/). It takes a function
of a real variable t (often time) to a function of a complex variable s
(complex frequency).
• The Laplace transform is very similar to the Fourier transform. While
the Fourier transform of a function is a complex function of
a real variable (frequency), the Laplace transform of a function is a
complex function of a complex variable.
• Techniques of complex variables can also be used to directly study
Laplace transforms.
HISTORY OF THE TRANSFORM

## • Euler began looking at integrals as solutions to differential equations

in the mid 1700’s:

## • Lagrange took this a step further while working on probability density

functions and looked at forms of the following equation:

## • Finally, in 1785, Laplace began using a transformation to solve

equations of finite differences which eventually lead to the current
transform
DEFINITION

## • The Laplace transform is a linear operator that switched a function

f(t) to F(s).
• Specifically:

where:
• Go from time argument with real input to a complex angular
frequency input which is complex.
RESTRICTIONS

## • There are two governing factors that determine whether Laplace

transforms can be used:
– f(t) must be at least piecewise continuous for t ≥ 0
– |f(t)| ≤ Meγt where M and γ are constants

CONTINUITY

## it makes sense that f(t) must be at least piecewise continuous for t ≥

0.
• If f(t) were very nasty, the integral would not be computable.
BOUNDEDNESS

## • This criterion also follows directly from the general definition:

• If f(t) is not bounded by Meγt then the integral will not converge.
LAPLACE TRANSFORM
THEORY
•General Theory

•Example

•Convergence
DEFINITION
• Transforms -- a mathematical conversion from one way of thinking to
another to make a problem easier to solve

Problem
in original
way of
thinking
solution inverse
transform in transform transform
way of
thinking
Solution in
original
way of
thinking

2. Transforms
Problem
in time
domain

Inverse
Laplace Solution Laplace
Transform in Transform
s domain
Solution in
time
• Other transforms domain
• Fourier
• z-transform
• wavelets

2. Transforms
LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION
Time Domain

Linear Time
Differential Domain
equation Solution

Laplace transform
Inverse Laplace
Transform
Laplace Algebra Laplace
Transformed
solution
Equation

Laplace domain or
complex frequency domain
4. Laplace transforms
BASIC TOOL FOR CONTINUOUS
TIME: LAPLACE TRANSFORM

L[ f (t )]  F (s)   f (t )e dt  st
0
• Convert time-domain functions and operations into
frequency-domain
– f(t)  F(s) (tR, sC)
– Linear differential equations (LDE)  algebraic expression in
Complex plane
• Graphical solution for key LDE characteristics
• Discrete systems use the analogous z-transform
THE COMPLEX PLANE
(REVIEW)
Imaginary axis (j)

u  x  jy
y r u    tan 1 y
 x
Real axis
 x | u | r | u | x  y
2 2
r
y
u  x  jy
(complex) conjugate
LAPLACE TRANSFORMS OF
COMMON FUNCTIONS
Name f(t) F(s)
1 t 0
Impulse f (t )   1
0 t 0
1
Step f (t )  1
s
1
Ramp f (t )  t
s2
1
Exponential f (t )  e at
sa
1
Sine f (t )  sin( t )
 2  s2
LAPLACE TRANSFORM
PROPERTIES
Addition/Scaling L[af1 (t )  bf 2 (t )]  aF1 ( s )  bF2 ( s )

d 
Differenti ation L  f (t )  sF ( s )  f (0)
 dt 
Integratio n 
L  f (t )dt  
F ( s) 1
s
  f (t )dt
s
 t 0

t
Convolution  f (t  τ)f (τ )dτ  F (s) F (s)
0
1 2 1 2

s 

## Final -value theorem lim f (t )  lim sF ( s )

t  s 0
L APL ACE
TRANSFORMS

S I M P L E T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S
TRANSFORMS
• Impulse --  (to)

## F(s) = e-st  (to) dt

= e-sto

f(t)
 (to)

4. Laplace transforms
TRANSFORMS
• Step -- u (to)

## F(s) = e-st u (to) dt

= e-sto/s
f(t)
1 u (to)

4. Laplace transforms
TRANSFORMS
• e-at

## F(s) = e-st e-at dt

= 1/(s+a)

4. Laplace transforms
TRANSFORMS
Linearity
f1(t)  f2(t) F1(s) ± F2(s)

Constant
multiplication a f(t) a F(s)

## Scaling f(t/a) a F(as)

4. Laplace transforms
TRANSFORMS

4. Laplace transforms
L APL ACE
TRANSFORMS

PA R T I A L F R A C T I O N E X PA N S I O N
DEFINITION
• Definition -- Partial fractions are several fractions whose sum equals a
given fraction
• Purpose -- Working with transforms requires breaking complex fractions
into simpler fractions to allow use of tables of transforms
PARTIAL FRACTION
EXPANSIONS
s 1 A B
  • Expand into a term for each
( s  2) ( s  3) s  2 s  3 factor in the denominator.
• Recombine RHS
s 1 A( s  3)  Bs  2)

( s  2) ( s  3) ( s  2) ( s  3)
• Equate terms in s and
constant terms. Solve.
A  B 1 3 A  2 B 1
• Each term is in a form so
s 1 1 2 that inverse Laplace
  transforms can be applied.
( s  2) ( s  3) s  2 s  3
EXAMPLE OF SOLUTION OF AN
ODE
d2y dy • ODE w/initial conditions
 6  8 y  2 y ( 0)  y ' ( 0)  0
dt 2 dt
• Apply Laplace transform to
s Y ( s )  6s Y ( s )  8 Y ( s )  2 / s
2
each term
• Solve for Y(s)
2
Y ( s) 
s ( s  2) ( s  4)
• Apply partial fraction
1 1 1 expansion
Y ( s)   
4s 2 ( s  2) 4 ( s  4) • Apply inverse Laplace
transform to each term
1 e 2t e 4t
y(t )   
4 2 4
DIFFERENT TERMS OF 1ST
DEGREE
• To separate a fraction into partial fractions when its denominator can
be divided into different terms of first degree, assume an unknown
numerator for each fraction
• Example --
– (11x-1)/(X2 - 1) = A/(x+1) + B/(x-1)
– = [A(x-1) +B(x+1)]/[(x+1)(x-1))]
– A+B=11
– -A+B=-1
– A=6, B=5
REPEATED TERMS OF 1ST DEGREE
(1 OF 2)
• When the factors of the denominator are of the first degree but some
are repeated, assume unknown numerators for each factor
– If a term is present twice, make the fractions the corresponding term and
its second power
– If a term is present three times, make the fractions the term and its
second and third powers

3. Partial fractions
REPEATED TERMS OF 1ST DEGREE
(2 OF 2)
• Example --
– (x2+3x+4)/(x+1)3= A/(x+1) + B/(x+1)2 + C/(x+1)3
– x2+3x+4 = A(x+1)2 + B(x+1) + C
– = Ax2 + (2A+B)x + (A+B+C)
– A=1
– 2A+B = 3
– A+B+C = 4
– A=1, B=1, C=2

3. Partial fractions
DIFFERENT QUADRATIC
TERMS
• When there is a quadratic term, assume a numerator of the form Ax +
B
• Example --
– 1/[(x+1) (x2 + x + 2)] = A/(x+1) + (Bx +C)/ (x2 + x + 2)
– 1 = A (x2 + x + 2) + Bx(x+1) + C(x+1)
– 1 = (A+B) x2 + (A+B+C)x +(2A+C)
– A+B=0
– A+B+C=0
– 2A+C=1
– A=0.5, B=-0.5, C=0

3. Partial fractions
REPEATED QUADRATIC
TERMS
• Example --
– 1/[(x+1) (x2 + x + 2)2] = A/(x+1) + (Bx +C)/ (x2 + x + 2) + (Dx +E)/
(x2 + x + 2)2
– 1 = A(x2 + x + 2)2 + Bx(x+1) (x2 + x + 2) + C(x+1) (x2 + x + 2) +
Dx(x+1) + E(x+1)
– A+B=0
– 2A+2B+C=0
– 5A+3B+2C+D=0
– 4A+2B+3C+D+E=0
– 4A+2C+E=1
– A=0.25, B=-0.25, C=0, D=-0.5, E=0

3. Partial fractions
APPLY INITIAL- AND FINAL-
VALUE THEOREMS TO THIS
EXAMPLE 2 • Laplace transform
Y ( s) 
s ( s  2) ( s  4) of the function.

• Apply final-value
lim t   f (t ) 
2 (0) 1
 theorem
(0) (0  2) (0  4) 4

2 ( ) • Apply initial-value
lim t 0  f (t )  0 theorem
() (  2) (  4)
L APL ACE
TRANSFORMS

SOLUTION PROCESS
SOLUTION PROCESS (1 OF 8)
• Any nonhomogeneous linear differential equation with constant
coefficients can be solved with the following procedure, which reduces
the solution to algebra

4. Laplace transforms
SOLUTION PROCESS (2 OF 8)
• Step 1: Put differential equation into standard form
– D2 y + 2D y + 2y = cos t
– y(0) = 1
– D y(0) = 0
SOLUTION PROCESS (3 OF 8)
• Step 2: Take the Laplace transform of both sides
– L{D2 y} + L{2D y} + L{2y} = L{cos t}
SOLUTION PROCESS (4 OF 8)
• Step 3: Use table of transforms to express equation in s-domain
– L{D2 y} + L{2D y} + L{2y} = L{cos  t}
– L{D2 y} = s2 Y(s) - sy(0) - D y(0)
– L{2D y} = 2[ s Y(s) - y(0)]
– L{2y} = 2 Y(s)
– L{cos t} = s/(s2 + 1)
– s2 Y(s) - s + 2s Y(s) - 2 + 2 Y(s) = s /(s2 + 1)
SOLUTION PROCESS (5 OF
8)
• Step 4: Solve for Y(s)
– s2 Y(s) - s + 2s Y(s) - 2 + 2 Y(s) = s/(s2 + 1)
– (s2 + 2s + 2) Y(s) = s/(s2 + 1) + s + 2
– Y(s) = [s/(s2 + 1) + s + 2]/ (s2 + 2s + 2)
– = (s3 + 2 s2 + 2s + 2)/[(s2 + 1) (s2 + 2s + 2)]
SOLUTION PROCESS (6 OF
8)
• Step 5: Expand equation into format covered by table
– Y(s) = (s3 + 2 s2 + 2s + 2)/[(s2 + 1) (s2 + 2s + 2)]
– = (As + B)/ (s2 + 1) + (Cs + E)/ (s2 + 2s + 2)
– (A+C)s3 + (2A + B + E) s2 + (2A + 2B + C)s + (2B +E)
– 1 =A + C
– 2 = 2A + B + E
– 2 = 2A + 2B + C
– 2 = 2B + E
– A = 0.2, B = 0.4, C = 0.8, E = 1.2
SOLUTION PROCESS (7 OF 8)
– (0.2s + 0.4)/ (s2 + 1)
– = 0.2 s/ (s2 + 1) + 0.4 / (s2 + 1)
– (0.8s + 1.2)/ (s2 + 2s + 2)
– = 0.8 (s+1)/[(s+1)2 + 1] + 0.4/ [(s+1)2 + 1]
SOLUTION PROCESS (8 OF 8)
• Step 6: Use table to convert s-domain to time domain
– 0.2 s/ (s2 + 1) becomes 0.2 cos t
– 0.4 / (s2 + 1) becomes 0.4 sin t
– 0.8 (s+1)/[(s+1)2 + 1] becomes 0.8 e-t cos t
– 0.4/ [(s+1)2 + 1] becomes 0.4 e-t sin t
– y(t) = 0.2 cos t + 0.4 sin t + 0.8 e-t cos t + 0.4 e-t sin t
OTHER LAPLACE PRACTICE
PROBLEMS:
Find the Laplace transforms of the given
functions.
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
SOLUTION:
• A)

• B)
C AND D ANSWERS:

• C)

• D)
PRACTICE INVERSE LAPLACE
TRANSFORM PROBLEMS:
Find the inverse transform of each of the
following.
PRACTICE PROBLEMS
SOLUTION:
• A)

• B)
C AND D ANSWERS:

• C)

• D)
L APL ACE
TRANSFORMS

IN ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Element Modeling

i(t) I(s)

+
v(t) _ V(s)
+
_
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Element Modeling

Resistance

+
+
v(t) = Ri(t) R v(t) Time Domain
_
_

+
+
V(s) = RI(s) R V(s) Complex Frequency Domain
_
_

+
I(s) +
V(s) = G V(s)
G_
_
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Element Modeling

Inductor

i(t)
+
di(t)
v
L t)= L
_ dt

+
I(s)
sL
Best for mesh VL(s)
_
VL(s) = sLI(s) - Li(0)
Li(0)
_ +

+
I(s)
i(0)
Best for nodal VL(s) s sL

_
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Capacitor
+
i(t)
1t
vc (t )   i(t )dt  vc (0)
_
C0

+
I(s)
1
sC I(s) vc(0)
Mesh VC(s) VC(s) = +
+
VC(0) sC s
_
s
_

+
I(s)
1 vC(s)
Nodal vc(0)C sC

_
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Linear Transformer

M
+ +
 

## v1(t) i1 (t) L1 L2 i2 (t) v2(t)

_ _

di1 (t ) di (t )
v1 (t )  L1 M 2
dt dt
V1 ( s )  sL1 I1 ( s )  L1i1 (0)  sMI 2 ( s )  Mi2 (0)
di2 (t ) di (t )
v2 (t )  L2 M 1
dt dt
L 1 i(0) + M i2 (0) L 2 i2 ( 0 )M +i1 (0)
V2 ( s )  sL2 I 2 ( s )  L2 i2 (0)  sMI1 ( s )  Mi1 (0) _ + sM + _

+ +
 
V1 (s ) I 1 (s) sL 1 sL 2 V2 (s)
I 2 (s)

_ _
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Time domain to complex frequency domain

v 1 (0)
R! _ L2 R2
+ _
+ C1 v 2 (0) i2 (t) _
C2
VA(t) + VB (t)
_ L1
i1 (t) +

v 1 (0)
_ L2i2(0)
+ s +
_
R! sL 2 R2

1 1
sC 1 sC 2 _
v 2 (0)
+ +
VA(s) + s
VB(s)
_ _
sL 1
+
L1i1(0)
_
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Application:

Given the circuit below. Assume zero IC’s. Use Laplace to find vc(t).
The time domain circuit:
t=0 100 

+
+
2u(t) V 0.001 F
v c(t)
_
_ Laplace circuit

t=0
 2  1000  100 
  
Vc ( s )   s  s 
+
1000
100  +
s 2 1000
I(s) s Vc(s)
s _
20
Vc ( s )  _
s( s  10)
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Application:

t=0
100 

+
+
2 1000
I(s) s Vc(s)
s _
_

20 2 2
Vc ( s )   
s( s  10) s s  10

vc ( t )  2  2e 10t u( t ) 
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Application:

Given the circuit below. Assume vc(0) = - 4 V. Use Laplace to find vc(t).
The time domain circuit:
t=0 100 

+
+
2u(t) V 0.001 F
v c (t)
_
_
Laplace circuit:
t=0
100 

2 4  1000 +
  I ( s )100 
s 
1000
s s  2
+ s
I(s) _ Vc(s)
s _ 4
6 s
100I ( s )  + _
s  10
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Application:

t=0
100  1
2
1000
+  100I ( s )  Vc ( s )  0
+ s s
2
I(s) _ Vc(s)
s _ 4
s + 2 6
_
  Vc ( s )
s s  10
2  4 s  20 A B
Vc ( s )   
s( s  10) s s  10 Check the boundary conditions

3 vc(0) = - 4 V
2 6
Vc ( s )  
s s  10
vc(oo) = 2 V

v ( t )  2  6e 10 t u( t ) 
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Application: Find i0(t) using Laplace

1 2 2H

+ i0 (t)
Time Domain 4u(t) 1 e-tu(t)
_ 1F

1 2 2s

+
Laplace 4 1
s I 1 (s) 1 I 2 (s) 1 I 3 (s)
_ s s+1
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Application: Find i0(t) using Laplace

1 2 2s

+
4 1
s I 1 (s) 1 I 2 (s) 1 I 3 (s)
_ s s+1

Mesh 1

( s  1) I 2 ( s) 4
I1 ( s )  
s s s

( s  1) I1 ( s )  I 2 ( s )  4
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Application: Find i0(t) using Laplace

1 2

+
4 1
s I 1 (s) 1 I 2 (s) 1 I 3 (s)
_ s s+1

Mesh 2
1 3s  1
I1 ( s )  I 2 ( s)  I 3 ( s)  0
s s
1 3s  1 1
I1 ( s )  I 2 ( s)  0
s s s 1
s
 I1 ( s )  ( 3 s  1) I 2 ( s ) 
s 1

 ( s  1) I1 ( s )  ( s  1)( 3 s  1) I 2 ( s )  s
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Application: Find i0(t) using Laplace

+
4 1
s I 1 (s) 1 I 2 (s) 1 I 3 (s)
_ s s+1

( s  1) I1 ( s )  I 2 ( s )  4 Add these 2
equations
 ( s  1) I1 ( s )  ( s  1)( 3 s  1) I 2 ( s )  s

s ( 3 s  4) I 2 ( s )  s  4
Laplace Circuit Analysis
Circuit Application: Find i0(t) using Laplace

+
4 1
s I 1 (s) 1 I 2 (s) 1 I 3 (s)
_ s s+1

s( 3 s  4) I 2 ( s )  s  4

1 )( s  4)
I ( s)  3
1
  3
2
2
s( s  4 ) s s 4
3 3
2  43t
i2 ( t )  [ 1  e ] u( t )
3
L APL ACE
TRANSFORMS

ADDITIONAL INFO:
TRANSFER FUNCTIONS
INTRODUCTION
• Definition -- a transfer function is an expression that relates the
output to the input in the s-domain

r(t) y(t)
differential
equation

r(s) y(s)
transfer
function

5. Transfer functions
TRANSFER FUNCTION

## • Definition X(s) H(s) Y(s)

– H(s) = Y(s) / X(s)
• Relates the output of a linear system (or component) to its input
• Describes how a linear system responds to an impulse
• All linear operations allowed
– Scaling, addition, multiplication
BLOCK DIAGRAMS

## • Pictorially expresses flows and relationships between

elements in system
• Blocks may recursively be systems
• Rules
– Cascaded (non-loading) elements: convolution
– Summation and difference elements
• Can simplify
TYPICAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
reference input, R(s) plant inputs, U(s)
error, E(s) output,Y(s)

## pre-filter control plant post-filter

G1(s) Gc(s) Gp(s) G2(s)

feedback
H(s)
feedback, H(s)Y(s)

5. Transfer functions
EXAMPLE R

v(t) L

C
v(t) = R I(t) + 1/C I(t) dt + L di(t)/dt

## Note: Ignore initial conditions

5. Transfer functions
BLOCK DIAGRAM AND TRANSFER
FUNCTION
• V(s)
– = (R + 1/(C s) + s L ) I(s)
– = (C L s2 + C R s + 1 )/(C s) I(s)
• I(s)/V(s) = C s / (C L s2 + C R s + 1 )

V(s) I(s)
C s / (C L s2 + C R s + 1 )

5. Transfer functions
BLOCK DIAGRAM REDUCTION
Series
U
RULES Y U Y
G1 G2 G1 G 2

Parallel
U + Y
G1
U Y
+ G1 + G2
G2

Feedback
U + Y
G1 U Y
- G1 /(1+G1 G2)

G2
5. Transfer functions
RATIONAL LAPLACE
TRANSFORMS
A( s )
F (s) 
B( s)
A( s )  a n s n  ...  a1 s  a 0
B ( s )  bm s m  ...  b1 s  b0
Poles : s*  B ( s*)  0 (So, F ( s*)  )
Zeroes : s*  A( s*)  0 (So, F ( s*)  0)
Poles and zeroes are complex
Order of system  # poles  m
FIRST ORDER SYSTEM
Y ( s) K K
 
R( s) 1  K  sT 1  sT
Reference

R(s )
E (s ) U (s ) 1 Y (s )
S K
1  sT

B(s ) 1
FIRST ORDER SYSTEM

Impulse Exponential
K
response
1  sT
Step response Step,
K K exponential
-
s s 1/ T
Ramp response
K KT KT Ramp,
- - step,
s 2
s s  1 / T exponential
No oscillations (as seen by poles)
SECOND ORDER SYSTEM

Y ( s) K  N2
Impulse response :  2  2
R( s ) Js  Bs  K s  2 N s   N2

## Oscillates if poles have non - zero imaginary part (ie, B 2  4 JK  0)

B
Damping ratio :   where Bc  2 JK
Bc

K
Undamped natural frequency :  N 
J
SECOND ORDER SYSTEM:
PARAMETERS
Interpreta tion of damping ratio
  0 : Undamped oscillation (Re  0, Im  0)
0    1 : Underdamped (Re  0  Im)
1   : Overdamped (Re  0, Im  0)

## Interpreta tion of undamped natural frequency

 N gives the frequency of the oscillation
TRANSIENT RESPONSE
CHARACTERISTICS
2

1.75

1.25

0.75

0.5

0.25

d t r t pt s t

## t d : Delay until reach 50% of steady state value

t r : Rise time  delay until first reach steady state value
t p : Time at which peak value is reached
t s : Settling time  stays within specified % of steady state
TRANSIENT RESPONSE

• Estimates the shape of the curve based on the foregoing points on the
x and y axis
• Typically applied to the following inputs
– Impulse
– Step
– Ramp
– Quadratic (Parabola)
EFFECT OF POLE LOCATIONS

Oscillations
(higher-freq)
Im(s)

## Faster Decay Faster Blowup

Re(s)
(e-at) (eat)
BASIC CONTROL ACTIONS:
U(T)
U (s)
Proportional control : u (t )  K p e(t )  Kp
E ( s)
t
U (s) K i
Integral control : u (t )  K i  e(t )dt 
0
E ( s) s
d U (s)
Differenti al control : u (t )  K d e(t )  Kd s
dt E ( s)
EFFECT OF CONTROL
ACTIONS
• Proportional Action
– Adjustable gain (amplifier)
• Integral Action
– Eliminates bias (steady-state error)
– Can cause oscillations
• Derivative Action (“rate control”)
– Effective in transient periods
– Provides faster response (higher sensitivity)
– Never used alone
BASIC CONTROLLERS

## • Proportional control is often used by itself

• Integral and differential control are typically used in combination with
at least proportional control
– eg, Proportional Integral (PI) controller:

U ( s) KI  1 
G( s)   Kp   K p 1  
E ( s) s  Ti s 
SUMMARY OF BASIC
CONTROL
• Proportional control
– Multiply e(t) by a constant
• PI control
– Multiply e(t) and its integral by separate constants
– Avoids bias for step
• PD control
– Multiply e(t) and its derivative by separate constants
– Adjust more rapidly to changes
• PID control
– Multiply e(t), its derivative and its integral by separate constants
– Reduce bias and react quickly
ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS

## • Based on characteristic eqn of closed-loop transfer

function
• Plot location of roots of this eqn
– Same as poles of closed-loop transfer function
– Parameter (gain) varied from 0 to 
• Multiple parameters are ok
– Vary one-by-one
– Plot a root “contour” (usually for 2-3 params)
• Quickly get approximate results
– Range of parameters that gives desired response
L APL ACE
TRANSFORMS

L A P L A C E A P P L I C AT I O N S
INITIAL VALUE
• In the initial value of f(t) as t approaches 0 is given by

s 
Example
f(t) = e -t

F(s) = 1/(s+1)

## f(0 ) = Lim s /(s+1) = 1

s 
6. Laplace applications
FINAL VALUE
• In the final value of f(t) as t approaches  is given by

s 0
Example
f(t) = e -t

F(s) = 1/(s+1)

## f(0 ) = Lim s /(s+1) = 0

s 0
6. Laplace applications
APPLY INITIAL- AND FINAL-
VALUE THEOREMS TO THIS
EXAMPLE 2 • Laplace transform
Y ( s) 
s ( s  2) ( s  4) of the function.

• Apply final-value
lim t   f (t ) 
2 (0) 1
 theorem
(0) (0  2) (0  4) 4

2 ( )
• Apply initial-value
lim t 0  f (t )  0 theorem
() (  2) (  4)
POLES
• The poles of a Laplace function are the values of s that make the
Laplace function evaluate to infinity. They are therefore the roots
of the denominator polynomial
• 10 (s + 2)/[(s + 1)(s + 3)] has a pole at s = -1 and a pole at s = -3
• Complex poles always appear in complex-conjugate pairs
• The transient response of system is determined by the location of
poles7

6. Laplace applications
ZEROS
• The zeros of a Laplace function are the values of s that make the
Laplace function evaluate to zero. They are therefore the zeros of
the numerator polynomial
• 10 (s + 2)/[(s + 1)(s + 3)] has a zero at s = -2
• Complex zeros always appear in complex-conjugate pairs

6. Laplace applications
STABILITY
• A system is stable if bounded inputs produce bounded outputs
• The complex s-plane is divided into two regions: the stable region,
which is the left half of the plane, and the unstable region, which is the
right half of the s-plane

s-plane x j

x x x 

x
stable x unstable
L APL ACE
TRANSFORMS

FREQUENCY RESPONSE
INTRODUCTION
• Many problems can be thought of in the time domain, and solutions can
be developed accordingly.
• Other problems are more easily thought of in the frequency domain.
• A technique for thinking in the frequency domain is to express the
system in terms of a frequency response

7. Frequency response
DEFINITION
• The response of the system to a sinusoidal signal. The output of the
system at each frequency is the result of driving the system with a
sinusoid of unit amplitude at that frequency.
• The frequency response has both amplitude and phase

7. Frequency response
PROCESS
• The frequency response is computed by replacing s with j  in the
transfer function
Example
f(t) = e -t magnitude in dB

F(s) = 1/(s+1) 

## Phase = argument = ATAN2(- , 1)

7. Frequency response
GRAPHICAL METHODS
• Frequency response is a graphical method
• Polar plot -- difficult to construct
• Corner plot -- easy to construct

7. Frequency response
CONSTANT K
magnitude
60 dB
20 log10 K
40 dB
20 dB
0 dB
-20 dB
-40 dB
-60 dB
phase
+180o
+90o arg K
0o
-90o
-180o
-270o
0.1 1 10 100
, radians/sec

7. Frequency response
SIMPLE POLE OR ZERO AT ORIGIN, 1/
(J)
60 dB
N
magnitude
40 dB
20 dB
0 dB

-20 dB 1/ 
-40 dB
-60 dB 1/ 3 1/ 2
phase
+180o
+90o
0o
1/ 
-90o
-180o 1/ 2
-270o 1/ 3
0.1 1 10 100
, radians/sec

## G(s) = n2/(s2 + 2 ns +  n2)

SIMPLE POLE OR ZERO, 1/(1+J)
magnitude
60 dB
40 dB
20 dB
0 dB
-20 dB
-40 dB
-60 dB
phase
+180o
+90o
0o
-90o
-180o
-270o
0.1 1 10 100
T

7. Frequency response
ERROR IN ASYMPTOTIC
APPROXIMATION
T dB arg (deg)
0.01 0 0.5
0.1 0.043 5.7
0.5 1 26.6
0.76 2 37.4
1.0 3 45.0
1.31 4.3 52.7
1.73 6.0 60.0
2.0 7.0 63.4
5.0 14.2 78.7
10.0 20.3 84.3
7. Frequency response
QUADRATIC POLE OR ZERO
magnitude
60 dB
40 dB
20 dB
0 dB
-20 dB
-40 dB
-60 dB
phase
+180o
+90o
0o
-90o
-180o
-270o
0.1 1 10 100
T

7. Frequency response
TRANSFER FUNCTIONS

## • Defined as G(s) = Y(s)/U(s)

• Represents a normalized model of a process, i.e., can be used with any
input.
• Y(s) and U(s) are both written in deviation variable form.
• The form of the transfer function indicates the dynamic behavior of
the process.
DERIVATION OF A TRANSFER
FUNCTION
dT
M  F1 T1  F2 T2  ( F1  F2 ) T • Dynamic model of
dt
CST thermal mixer

• Apply deviation
T  T  T0 T1  T1  T0 T2  T2  T0 variables

## dT • Equation in terms of

M  F1 T1  F2 T2  ( F1  F2 ) T deviation variables.
dt
DERIVATION OF A TRANSFER
FUNCTION
F1 T1 ( s )  F2 T2 ( s ) • Apply Laplace transform to
T ( s) 
M s  F1  F2  each term considering that
only inlet and outlet
temperatures change.
T (s) F1 • Determine the transfer
G ( s)  
T1 ( s ) M s  F1  F2  function for the effect of inlet
temperature changes on the
outlet temperature.
• Note that the response is first
order.
POLES OF THE TRANSFER
FUNCTION INDICATE THE DYNAMIC
RESPONSE 1
G( s) 
( s  a ) ( s 2  bs  c) ( s  d )
A B C
Y (s)   2 
( s  a ) ( s  bs  c) ( s  d )

y(t )  A e  at  B e pt sin(  t )  C e dt

## • For a, b, c, and d positive constants, transfer function

indicates exponential decay, oscillatory response, and
exponential growth, respectively.
POLES ON A COMPLEX PLANE

Im

Re
EXPONENTIAL DECAY

Im

Re

Time
DAMPED SINUSOIDAL

Im

Re

Time
EXPONENTIALLY GROWING
SINUSOIDAL BEHAVIOR
(UNSTABLE)

Im

Re
y

Time
WHAT KIND OF DYNAMIC
BEHAVIOR?

Im

Re
UNSTABLE BEHAVIOR
• If the output of a process grows without bound for a bounded input,
the process is referred to a unstable.
• If the real portion of any pole of a transfer function is positive, the
process corresponding to the transfer function is unstable.
• If any pole is located in the right half plane, the process is unstable.
-THE END-

•THANK YOU