Application Layer Functionality and Protocols

Network Fundamentals ± Chapter 3

Version 4.0

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

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Objectives 
Define the application layer as the source and destination of data for communication across networks.  Explain the role of protocols in supporting communication between server and client processes.  Describe the features, operation, and use of well-known TCP/IP application layer services (HTTP, DNS, SMTP).

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

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Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 3 .Applications ± The Interface Between Human and Data Networks  Applications provide the means for generating and receiving data that can be transported on the network © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 4 .Applications ± The Interface Between Human and Data Networks  Presentation o Coding and conversion of Application layer data o Compression of the data o Encryption of the data for transmission © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.

Cisco Public 5 . © 2007 Cisco Systems.Applications ± The Interface Between Human and Data Networks  Session creates and maintains dialogs between source and destination applications. All rights reserved. Inc.

Inc.Applications ± The Interface Between Human and Data Networks  Network aware applications. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 6 . services and protocols Applications provide the human interface. © 2007 Cisco Systems. Services follow protocols to prepare data for the network.

All rights reserved.Applications ± The Interface Between Human and Data Networks  Application layer protocol functions © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 7 .

services and protocols play in transporting data through networks © 2007 Cisco Systems.Applications ± The Interface Between Human and Data Networks  Define the separate roles applications. Cisco Public 8 . All rights reserved. Inc.

Applications ± The Interface Between Human and Data Networks  Domain Name Service Protocol (DNS) is used to resolve Internet names to IP addresses. Cisco Public 9 .  Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is used to transfer files that make up the Web pages of the World Wide Web. Inc. All rights reserved. © 2007 Cisco Systems. (Web server)  Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is used for the transfer of mail messages and attachments.

default gateway and other information to clients © 2007 Cisco Systems. a terminal emulation protocol.  File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is used for interactive file transfer between systems. Cisco Public 10 . Inc. All rights reserved.  DHCP server assigns the IP. is used to provide remote access to servers and networking devices. subnet mask.Applications ± The Interface Between Human and Data Networks  Telnet.

Applications ± The Interface Between Human and Data Networks  Domain Name System (DNS) . Cisco Public 11 .TCP Port 25  Post Office Protocol (POP) . All rights reserved.TCP Ports 20 and 21 © 2007 Cisco Systems.UDP Port 110  Telnet .UDP Port 67  File Transfer Protocol (FTP) . Inc.TCP/UDP Port 53  Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) .TCP Port 23  Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol .TCP Port 80  Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) .

Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 12 .The Role of Protocols in Supporting Communication  Server is a repository of data  Client is a device requesting for information © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 13 . Inc.The Role of Protocols in Supporting Communication  When multiple application simultaneously requests for information.  Daemon is a process that runs in the background listening for requests © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. the daemon takes care of each.

Cisco Public 14 . Inc. All rights reserved.The Role of Protocols in Supporting Communication  Compare and contrast client server networking with peer-to-peer networking and peer-to-peer applications © 2007 Cisco Systems.

The Role of Protocols in Supporting Communication  Peer-to-peer network . All rights reserved. Cisco Public 15 .per request basis  Peer-to-peer application ± a client acts as client and server in the same communication  Advantages o Decentralized information  Disadvantages o Difficult to enforce security and access policies © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

All rights reserved.Features. Inc. Operation. Cisco Public 16 . © 2007 Cisco Systems. and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services  DNS protocol defines an automated service that matches resource names with the required numeric network address.

an end device address o NS . Operation. Inc.Features. used when multiple services have the single network address but each service has its own entry in DNS o MX .the canonical name (or Fully Qualified Domain Name) for an alias. maps a domain name to a list of mail exchange servers for that domain © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 17 . All rights reserved. and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services  Record types are: o A .mail exchange record.an authoritative name server o CNAME .

 Using the HTTP protocol requirements.htm. the browser deciphers the HTML code and formats the page for the browser window.  Finally.  The server in turn sends the HTML code or error message for this web page to the browser.Features. the browser sends a GET request to the server and asks for the file web-server. © 2007 Cisco Systems. Operation. and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services  The browser checks with a name server to convert www. Cisco Public 18 .cisco. Inc. All rights reserved.com into a numeric address.

Cisco Public 19 .Features. Operation. Inc. All rights reserved. and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services  GET ± to request data from the server  POST ± includes the data in the message  PUT ± uploads resources or contents to the web browser  HTTPS © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 20 .Features. Inc. and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Operation.

Inc. All rights reserved. Operation. and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services  POP is used for inbound while SMTP is used for outbound © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 21 .Features.

and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services  Port 21 is used to establish connection to the server. Inc. All rights reserved. Port 20 is used for actual data transfer. Operation. © 2007 Cisco Systems.Features. Cisco Public 22 .

© 2007 Cisco Systems. Operation.Features. Cisco Public 23 . Inc. and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services  The DHCP service enables devices on a network to obtain IP addresses and other information from a DHCP server. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Telnet is called a VTY session.Features. Inc. Cisco Public 24 . and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services  Telnet is used to remotely manage a network. © 2007 Cisco Systems. Operation.

Operation.Features. Cisco Public 25 . and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services  Describe the features of the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol and the role it plays in supporting file sharing in Microsoft-based networks © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.

LimeWire. Gnucleus. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 26 . Morpheus.Features. Operation. and Use of TCP/IP Application Layer Services  The Gnutella protocol and the role it plays in supporting P2P services  Used in BearShare. WinMX and XoloX © 2007 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved.Summary © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 27 . Inc.

All rights reserved. Cisco Public 28 . Inc.© 2007 Cisco Systems.

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