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The Vannet Group, LLC

SCADA Made Simple

SCADA Monitoring
SCADA Made Simple
SCADA Made Simple

 What is SCADA? History of SCADA

 Various types of SCADA systems
 Differences between systems
 Why the need for monitoring?
 How SCADA applies to Water and Wastewater
 The Mission monitoring RTU
 Questions and Answers
 Environmental Health Specialist
 Private Industry Perdue Farms,
 Small Town WATER and
 State Water System Inspector
 State Capacity Development
 EPA- Small Systems TA Grants
and Small System Tool
Development; Capacity Dev
Coordinator, Co-lead on Op
Cert Program, and all around
nice guy.
 (PS- Check’s in the mail)
Importance of Communication
 Ability to exchange ideas/desires/needs
 Express yourself
 Send a message
 Tower of Babel (Bible)
Communication- Imperative
What is SCADA?
SCADA systems were first used in the 1960’s
The acronym SCADA means supervisory
control and data acquisition
SCADA systems are used to monitor and
control plant or equipment in industries such as:
Energy, oil and gas refining
Water and Wastewater monitoring and control
Old School Communications
Sampling Points
Telecommunication & Miss Jenkins
Physical Components

•Remote data monitoring units,

•Communications platform and a

•Central host or master that manages

entire system.
First Generation SCADA
2nd Generation
3rd Generation
What is SCADA cont.
 SCADA systems can be relatively simple,
such as ones that monitor environmental
conditions of a small office building, or
very complex, such as systems that monitor
the activity in a nuclear power plant or
control a municipality’s water system
through tank, pump, and well control.
What is SCADA cont.
 SCADA systems gather information such as:

 Pump Runtimes  Flow

 Water Levels  Pressure
 Amperage  Temperature

 …and transfers and stores the information back to

a central site (computer).
What is SCADA cont.
SCADA systems can monitor specific alarm
setups such as:

● High or Low Level ● Phase Loss

● Pump Failure ● High Temperature
● Intrusion ● Excess Pump Starts
● Power Loss ● Analog Thresholds
● Generator Running
Types of Systems
Used in our industry

 Auto Dialers

 Private Radio

 Wireless Data Network Based

Differences Between Systems

Method of transmitting data

How often the data is transmitted
Amount of data transmitted
Auto Dialers

 Good solution for basic alarms

 Need a dedicated phone line

– Limited RTU mobility if you want to move it
– You have to deal with the phone company!

 Limited features and functionality

Private Radio
 Optimal for advanced applications, i.e. oil,
gas and storage plants
 High number of inputs and outputs
 Generally custom designed
 Single database computer (control center)
 Costly software
 Setup is time-consuming
 On going maintenance costs
National Wireless Data
Network System
The Newer Technology Options

 Uses the public cellular network system

 Low equipment and installation costs
 No costly software
 Internet based access
 Mixed deployment/Roll out over time
National Wireless Data
Network System

 Ease of installation
 Scalable from 1 unit to X units
 Compatible to existing HMI SCADA
software programming mods
 Capable of meeting or exceeding homeland
security and AWWA standards with 128-bit
Is Cellular Reliable?

The short answer is…YES!

 Uses the data channel, not the voice

 Each transmission is confirmed end to end

 All transmissions are encrypted

 After disasters, cell towers are brought in on

tractor trailers and communication is restored

Basic Components of Internet Enabled
Monitoring & SCADA Systems
4. Alarms &
1. Field RTU…The Box • Pagers
Centralized Web
Based Software • Fax
2. National Wireless Data Networks • Email
• Cell
3. Centralized Web Software Phones

4. Alarms To Virtually Anything

5. Secure Customer Web Site

1. Customer
5. Website
Network Carriers
Why the need?
Why the need?
 Ever increasing regulatory restrictions are
being imposed on Water and Wastewater
operators for efficient & safe system
operations such as Class 1 Reliability (EPA,
DEQ, etc)
 Both current & historical data from
electronic databases greatly simplify the
regulatory reporting process
 Redundancy to larger SCADA systems all
ready in place
The tank does
that all the
time. It’s OK.

National Public Wireless Data Networks

combined with Internet Data Access are now a
permanent contender for automation in the
Water & Wastewater Industry.
How It Applies to
 Wireless Technology Can Be Applied In
A Variety of Remote Applications
 Water Pumping Stations
 Sewer Lift Stations
 Level / Flow / Pressure Applications
 Tank Storage Applications
 Storm Water / Sewer Flow Applications
 Meter Reading Applications
 Water Well and Tank Control
 Rainfall Monitoring
How It Applies to
Water/Wastewater cont
 Profiling and understanding:
 Flow Data  Rainfall Data
 Level Data  Surcharge Data
 Pump Activity  Other Parameters

…is crucial for effective operations.

 New wireless technologies are now
available for very remote sites.
Typical Lift Station

Rainfall Monitoring
Water Tower Monitoring
•Water Plant Monitoring

• Tank and Well Control

Very Remote

Solar Power is
the Answer!
Map location of your stations
Example Supplier Sell Points
 Reliable – Money Saving Features
 Prepackaged – Ease of Installation
 Simple – Very Affordable
 M110 Full Monitoring System
 M800 Full SCADA
 M200 Solar Station
 M81 CSO/SSO Monitoring
INCLUDES: Secure Website,
Graphics & Software, Alarms,
Mgmt. Reports, Runtime
Reports, Maintenance Logs
Bt wut r t costs?
A small SCADA Data Loggers with
system cost on the modems costs on the
order of $1,400 to order of $1,100 to
SCADA Security
Security Terminology
 1. Redundancy of the system. Redundancy refers to the
ability of certain components of a system to assume
functions of failed components without adversely affecting
the performance of the system itself.

 2. Robustness of the system. Robustness refers to the

degree of insensitivity of a system design to errors in the
estimates of those parameters affecting design choice.
Robustness or those properties that make the system less
vulnerable to attack (stability).

 3. Resilience of the system. Resilience is the ability of a

system to operate close to its closest possible design
technically and institutionally over a short run after an
attack, such that the losses are within manageable limits.
Ways to Prevent Attacks
Should My System Use SCADA?
 Today’s SCADA systems are able to take advantage of the evolution from mainframe
based to client/server architectures. These systems use common communications
protocols like Ethernet and TCP/IP to transmit data from the field to the central
master control unit.

 SCADA protocols have also evolved from closed proprietary systems to an open
system, allowing designers to choose equipment that can help them monitor their
unique system using equipment from variety of vendors

 SCADA systems are widely used to monitor and control U.S. critical infrastructure
utilities such as Electrical Power Plants and Water Distribution Centers

 While SCADA protocols are more open today, there is no clear consensus of which
protocol is best. IEC 60870-5 series and DNP3 have many similarities but are not
100% compatible.
Should My System Use SCADA?
 SCADA systems, like other computer systems, are subject to many common security
attacks such as viruses, denial of service, and hijacking of the system

 Because SCADA systems use leased telephone lines, twisted pair cable, microwave
radio, and spread spectrum techniques, they have many of the same security
Should My System Use SCADA?

 The Explosive Growth In National Wireless Networks, Personal

Communications, and the Internet Provide Great Flexibility and
Scalability For Automation Of Water and Wastewater
 No Need For Large Capital Outlay for Proprietary Wireless
Network Build-out
 Can Be Cost Effective and Deployed in a Variety Of
- Rural, Suburban, and Urban Sites
- High Cost Sites
- Applications that Require Redundancy
- New Installations, Upgrades, and Replacement Sites
 Section 1: SCADA General Questions
(functions, reliability, staff trained?)

 Section 2: Communication Pathway

(Reliable: power failure, weather, hardware
to software)
 Section 3: Security
Think of
“More than Just Operators”
The Vannet Group
Steve Clark

A Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Business

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