You are on page 1of 26


From the Greek word “philo” and “sophia” – which means
“love” and “wisdom”.
Philosophy is defined as love of wisdom.

Philosophy is the search for meaning of life and reality,

or the critical evaluation of the facts of life, or the study
of the ultimate meaning, causes, principles, or
explanations of reality, knowledge and truth.
“Philosophy as an approach to truth”

Philosophy Reason or the mind Thinking, analyzing, Philosophical

alone reasoning, etc.

Science The mind and Using the scientific Scientific

scientific method (observing,
instruments gathering data,
Theology The mind, word of Living out faith Theological or
God and faith (believing, praying, religious

Common or Common sense Using common Common or

Ordinary sense ordinary
1. Metaphysics
Greek word “meta” – beyond
“physico” – physical or observable
Metaphysics deals with principles, structures, and meanings
that underlie all observable reality.
e.g. Space and time
Everything as creation of God
2. Epistemology
Greek word epistome and logos which means “knowledge”
and “theory”.

Epistemology is called the theory of knowledge which deals

with the possibilities and limits of human knowledge.
“Rationalism vs. Empiricism”
3. Logic
Greek word logike meaning “thought”, and Latin word logos
meaning “theory, reason or discourse”.

Logic is defined as the science and art of correct thinking or

valid argumentation.
e.g. All men are tall,
All gays are men, Therefore,
All gays are tall.
4. Aesthetics
“sense of perception”

Aesthetics is branch of philosophy concerned with the

nature of beauty, arts, and taste of appreciation.
e.g. How humans judge what is beautiful?
Galleries and paintings
5. Ethics

General definition of ethics, “is the branch of philosophy

dealing with the human behavior, morality, and
responsibilities of people to each other and to society.”
What is ETHICS?
From the Greek word “ethicos” or “ethos” - meaning “custom”
or “way of acting”
– action or way of behaving that is usual and traditional
among the people in a particular.
- quality of goodness or badness of human acts on
whether these acts agree or disagree with the
dictates of reason.
What is ETHICS?
a. “Ethics is the practical science of the morality of human
b. “Ethics is a philosophical science dealing with the morality of
the human acts”
c. “Ethics is the systematic study of human actions from the point
of view of their rightness or wrongness as means for the
achievement of ultimate happiness”
d. “Ethics is the normative science of the conduct of human
beings living in societies”
Difference between ETHICS and
“Ethics (as a theoretical science) provides principles or
bases of right or wrong, morality actualizes the theory”

Ethics Compared with Other Sciences
that Deal With Man
Ethics and Psychology
Psychology is a descriptive philosophy that treats man’s
intellect, free will and conduct while ethics guides man’s
intellect to know moral truth.

How does man behave?

What does man ought to behave?

Ethics Compared with Other Sciences
that Deal With Man
Ethics and Sociology
Sociology deals with human relations
Human relations presupposes proper setup or order in

“Ethics as guide for Sociology”

Ethics Compared with Other Sciences
that Deal With Man
Ethics and Logic
man’s correct thinking
man’s correct doing and living
Ethics and Anthropology
man’s origin and primeval living of man
principles of right conduct as applied to all men at all times
Ethics and Moral Theology
based its principles on Faith or Divine Revelation
based its principles on reason
Morality and Human Existence
Man is the only Moral Being
a. Man is a being of action
b. Man has intellect
c. Man has will
Man as an Animal
a. Animal – only uses senses and instinct
b. Rational – uses senses with intellect and instinct with will
Morality and Human Existence
Man as a rational being
Process and analyze man’s knowledge which manifested
from senses and instincts.
Intellect Compared with Will
Intellect and will go hand and hand as complementary
factors as they are intrinsically endowed in man as the moral
Human Acts vs. Acts of Man
Human Act
An act (deed or omission) that proceed from the deliberate
free will of man.
- intellect, will, consequences and responsibility.
Acts of man
Acts that man performs indeliberately or inadvertently and
without the exercise of free choice.
Elements of Human Acts
1. Knowledge
- has intellectual knowledge in doing the act
- Awareness to the means and end of act
2. Freedom
- Acted under control of his will
- no influence or constraint
- no force
3. Voluntariness
- presence of knowledge and freedom
Two Classification of Human Acts
1. Human Acts in relation to the will
- Actions which are started, performed, and completed by
the will either by the will alone, or through other faculties
which are under the control of the will.
Will is the conscious judgement of man having the full
knowledge of the means and consequences of his actions
which are free from influence or constraint.
2. Human Acts in relation to reason
- Actions that are either in agreement or in disagreement
with reason
Human Acts in relation to the Will
1. Elicited Acts
- Acts which are started by the will, performed by the will,
and are completed by the will as the sole agent.
e.g. “I wish” , “I want” , “I like”
2. Commanded Acts
- Acts which are begun in the will, performed by the will,
completed by the will through another medium which is
under the control of the will.
e.g. controlling emotions
Observable actions like running, walking, lifting and
Elements of Elicited Acts
a. Wish – “desire”
b. Intention – “attainability”
c. Counsel – “judgement” or “do I really need that?”
d. Consent – “decide what means to use”
e. Choice – “right to pick”
f. Command – “interplay between intellect and the will”
g. Fruition – “satisfaction of attaining desired end”
Types of Commanded Acts
1. Internal Acts
- Actions by man by way of internal mental powers under the
command of the will.
e.g. Act of remembering
Controlling anger
Types of Commanded Acts
2. External Acts
- Acts that are affected by bodily powers of man under the
command of the will.
e.g. eating
Types of Commanded Acts
3. Mixed Acts
- Acts that include the use of body and mental powers
e.g. exam/quiz
Human Acts in Relation to Reason
1. Good Acts
- Actions “in harmony with the dictates of right reason”
e.g. Businesses paying the right amount of taxes
Appropriate use of authority of the law enforcers
2. Evil Acts
- Actions “contradiction to the dictates of right reason”
e.g. Selling expired products
Manipulated raid and arrest
Voluntariness of Human Acts
Voluntary Act (freewill)
is the act which proceeds from an intrinsic principle with
knowledge of the end.

“whether you act or not as long as the man

knows the consequences of his action”