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Ch.

E-403
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT DESIGN

Lecture # 1
Ch.E-403 Chemical Engineering Plant Design
Lecture # 1
Dr. Syed Zaheer Abbas
szabbas@uet.edu.pk
chemicalengineeringpd15@gmail.com

Department of Chemical Engineering,
University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore
Course Description

Introduction to process design and development
General design considerations
Optimal design
Materials of fabrication and their selection
Material transfer handling and equipment design
Heat transfer equipment design
Mass transfer equipment design
Application of computer aided design software
Course Learning Outcomes (CLOs)

CLO-1: Create, design, and evaluate alternate processes and
equipment for a chemical process and assess various societal,
environmental, and safety issues associated with such design
CLO-2: Apply knowledge acquired in core Chemical Engineering
courses (e.g., Stoichiometry, Reaction Engineering, Thermodynamics,
and Unit Operations) for selection and design of materials handling,
heat transfer, and separation process equipment.
CLO-3: Understand the concept of heat integration for minimization
of overall energy footprint of a chemical process.
CLO-4: Use process simulation software for process creation and
simulation, equipment sizing and costing, and process optimization
Grading Breakup

SESSIONAL: 30% [(Quiz = 20 %), (Assignments = 10
%)]
MIDTERM: 30 %
FINAL TERM: 40 %
NOTE:
An attendance of 75% is mandatory to sit in the final
examination.
BOOKS

Text Book:
“Plant Design and Economics for
Chemical Engineers” by M. S.
Peters, K. D. Timmerhaus, and R. E.
West
Reference Books

“Ludwig’s Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical
Plants” by A. K. Coker
“Chemical Process Equipment: Selection and Design” by J. R.
Couper, W. R. Penney, J. R. Fair, and S. M.Walas
“Equipment Design Handbook: For Refineries and Chemical
Engineers” by F. L. Evans
“Chemical Process: Design and Integration” by R. Smith
“The Art of Chemical Process Design” by G. L. Wells, and L. M. Rose
“Coulson and Richardson’s Chemical Engineering Volume 6
First Week Plan

Introduction: General overall design
considerations: Process design and flow sheet
development, computer aided design, cost
estimation and profitability analysis of
investments, optimum design; practical
consideration and engineering ethics in design
Introduction

A successful chemical engineer needs more than a
knowledge and understanding of the fundamental
sciences and the related engineering subjects
The engineer must also have the ability to apply
this knowledge to practical situations
Design of new chemical plants and the expansion
or revision of existing ones
Process Design Development

Inception Detailed engineering
Preliminary evaluation of design
economics and market Procurement
Development of data Commissioning
necessary for final design Startup and trial runs
Final economic Production
evaluation
General overall design consideration

Plant design includes all engineering aspects involved in
the development of either a new, modified, or expanded
industrial plant.
Design engineer
Cost engineer
Process engineer
Plant location, plant layout, materials of construction,
structural design, utilities, buildings, storage, materials
handling, safety, waste disposal, federal, state, and local
laws or codes, and patents.
Ch.E-403 Chemical Engineering Plant Design
Lecture # 2
Dr. Syed Zaheer Abbas
szabbas@uet.edu.pk
chemicalengineeringpd15@gmail.com

Department of Chemical Engineering,
University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore
Course Description

Introduction to process design and development
General design considerations
Optimal design
Materials of fabrication and their selection
Material transfer handling and equipment design
Heat transfer equipment design
Mass transfer equipment design
Application of computer aided design software
Process Design Development

Inception
Preliminary evaluation of economics and market
Development of data necessary for final design
Final economic evaluation
Detailed engineering design
Procurement
Commissioning
Startup and trial runs
Production
DESIGN-PROJECT PROCEDURE

The development of a design project always
starts with an initial idea or plan.

Types of Designs
• Preliminary or quick-estimate designs
• Detailed-estimate designs
• Firm process designs or detailed designs
Preliminary designs
• Approximate process methods
• Rough cost estimates
Detailed-estimate design
• Detailed analyses and calculations
Firm process design
• Complete specifications
• Accurate costs
Feasibility Survey
• Raw materials (availability, • Safety considerations
quantity, quality, cost) • Markets (present and future
• Thermodynamics and kinetics of supply and demand), Competition
chemical reactions involved • Properties of products (chemical
• Facilities and equipment available and physical properties,
at present specifications)
• Facilities and equipment which • Sales and sales service
must be purchased • Shipping restrictions and
• Estimation of production costs and containers
total investment, Profits • Plant location
• Materials of construction
Process Development
Design

Manufacturing process
Material and energy balances
Temperature and pressure ranges
Raw-material and product specifications
Yields, reaction rates, and time cycles
Materials of construction
Utilities requirements
Plant site
Construction and Operation

Quick plant startup
Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
or the Critical Path Method (CPM)
Developed primarily to simplify the planning and
scheduling of large and complex projects.
Design, construction, and operations
Class Activity: Find the critical path

Activity Predecessor Duration (day)
A ---- 3
B A 4
C A 2
D B 5
E C 1
F C 2
G D, E 4
H F, G 3
Design information from the literature

Obtain a recent publication dealing
with the subject under
investigation.
The effective design engineer must
make every attempt to keep an up-
to-date knowledge of the advances
in the field.
Journals
Patent
Handbooks
FLOW DIAGRAMS

Qualitative
Flow of materials
Unit operations involved
Equipment necessary
Information on operating temperatures and pressures
Quantitative
Quantities of materials required for the process operation
Combined-detail
Ch.E-403 Chemical Engineering Plant Design
Lecture # 3
Dr. Syed Zaheer Abbas
szabbas@uet.edu.pk
chemicalengineeringpd15@gmail.com

Department of Chemical Engineering,
University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore
Chemical Equilibrium
with Application (CEA)
Ch.E-403 Chemical Engineering Plant Design
Lecture # 4
Dr. Syed Zaheer Abbas
szabbas@uet.edu.pk
chemicalengineeringpd15@gmail.com

Department of Chemical Engineering,
University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore
Course Description

Introduction to process design and development
General design considerations
Optimal design
Materials of fabrication and their selection
Material transfer handling and equipment design
Heat transfer equipment design
Mass transfer equipment design
Application of computer aided design software
Week 2 Plan

General design considerations: Health and
safety hazards, importance and objectives of safety,
safety measures in equipment design: Fire and
explosion hazards and prevention, Chemical, toxic,
electrical hazards, control, precautions and
prevention, personnel safety, loss prevention and
safety audit.
Short cuts leads to
Deep cuts
The computer
doesn’t work!
HEALTH AND SAFETY HAZARDS
Inherent toxicity and duration of exposure
Short-term and long-term effects
Safety hazard
Industrial health and hygiene hazard.
Short-term effect is expressed as LD50
Threshold limit value (TLV)
Sources of Exposure
Inhalation
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
Exposure-Hazard Control
Fire and Explosion Hazards

Lower flammable limit (LFL)
Upper flammable limit (UFL)
Limiting oxygen index (LOI)
LOSS PREVENTION
Set of practices employed by the companies
to preserve profit.
Loss represents the financial loss associated
with an accident
The cost of repairing or replacing the
damaged facility
Taking care of all damage claims
Loss of earnings from lost production
Summary

Identification and assessment of the
major hazards.
Control of the hazards
Control of the process, i.e., prevention of
hazardous conditions
Limitation of the loss when an incident
occurs.
Ch.E-403 Chemical Engineering Plant Design
Lecture # 5 & 6
Dr. Syed Zaheer Abbas
szabbas@uet.edu.pk
chemicalengineeringpd15@gmail.com

Department of Chemical Engineering,
University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore
HAZOP Study:
Hazard and
Operability
Study
HAZARD

An inherent physical, biological or chemical
characteristic that has the potential for causing
harm to people, the environment, or property.

Hazards are intrinsic to a material or its
conditions of use.
Examples
Hydrogen sulfide – toxic by inhalation
Gasoline – flammable
Moving machinery – kinetic energy
Hazard Management:
The World as It Was Before

Good people
…….. Doing good
things
The Rising Case for Change

1984 – Mexico City, Mexico –
Explosion
300 fatalities HAZARD:
(mostly offsite)
Flammable LPG
$20M damages
in tank
Then the Need is……
The proactive and systematic identification,
evaluation, and mitigation or prevention of
physical, biological or chemical hazards that could
occur as a result of failures in process, procedures,
or equipment.
•HAZOP
HAZOP Study
Identifying potential hazards and operability problems caused by
deviations from the design intent of both new and existing process
plants.
Oh God!
What is HAZOP study?

A Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study is a structured
and systematic examination of a planned or existing
process or operation in order to identify and evaluate
problems that may represent risks to personnel or
equipment, or prevent efficient operation.
A HAZOP is a qualitative technique based on guide-words
and is carried out by a multi-disciplinary team (HAZOP
team) during a set of meetings.
When to perform a HAZOP?

The HAZOP study should preferably be carried out as early in the design
phase as possible - to have influence on the design. On the other hand;
to carry out a HAZOP we need a rather complete design. As a
compromise, the HAZOP is usually carried out as a final check when the
detailed design has been completed.

A HAZOP study may also be conducted on an existing facility to identify
modifications that should be implemented to reduce risk and operability
problems.
HAZOP Procedure
EXAMPLE:
STORAGE
TANK
Ch.E-403 Chemical Engineering Plant Design
Lecture # 7
Dr. Syed Zaheer Abbas
szabbas@uet.edu.pk
chemicalengineeringpd15@gmail.com

Department of Chemical Engineering,
University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore
Week 3 Plan

Environmental protection and development
of pollution control systems. Thermal pollution
control, toxicological studies, industrial
hygiene, radiation hazards.
• Fault-tree Analysis
• To estimate the likelihood of an accident by breaking it
down into its contributing sequences
• Failure Mode and Effect Analysis
• Applied to a specific equipment in a process. Its
primary purpose is to evaluate the frequency and
consequences of component failures. Its major
shortcoming is that it focuses only on component
failure and does not consider errors in operating
procedures or those committed by operators.
Environmental protection

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has systematically
been rewriting and tightening many policies and regulations.
Disposal of wastes, both hazardous and nonhazardous
Meet groundwater monitoring and insurance requirements
Effluent controls on wastewater
Deep-well injection
Hydrocarbon emissions to the atmosphere
Emissions from refineries
Environmental impact assessment (EIA)
Study to predict the effect of a proposed activity/project
on the environment.
EIA compares various alternatives for a project and seeks
to identify the one which represents the best combination
of economic and environmental costs and benefits.
EIA integrates the environmental concerns in the
developmental activities right at the time of initiating for
preparing the feasibility report.
EIA can often prevent future liabilities or expensive
alterations in project design.
3 Core values of EIA
• Integrity: the EIA process should be fair, objective, unbiased and
balanced.
• Utility: the EIA process should provide balanced, credible
information for decision making.
• Sustainability: the EIA process should result in Environmental
Safeguard.

• Environmental Assessment has many benefits:
•Protection of Environment •Optimum utilization of resources
•Saves overall time and cost of the project •Promotes community
participation •Informs decision makers •Lays base for
environmentally sound projects.
EIA Cycles & Procedures

Screening
Scoping & consideration of alternatives
Baseline data collection
Impact Analysis
Mitigation and Environmental Impact statement
Public hearing
Environmental Management Plan
Decision Making
Monitoring the Clearance Condition
1. Screening
First stage of EIA, which determines whether the proposed
project requires an EIA and if it requires EIA, then the level of
assessment required.
Screening criteria are based upon:
• Scales of investment • Type of development • Location of development

Project Category ‘A’
• Projects in this category typically require an EIA. The project type,
scale and location determine this designation. The potentially
significant environmental issues for these projects may lead to
changes in land- use, as well as changes to social, physical, and
biological environment.
Project Category ‘B’
• Only difference between projects in this category and those in
Category ‘A’ is the scale. Larger Power plants fall under category
‘A’, Medium Sized Power Plants projects are in category ‘B’. These
projects are not located in environmentally sensitive area.
Mitigation measures for these projects are more easily prescribed.

Project Category ‘C’
• This category is for projects that typically do not require an
environmental assessment. These projects are unlikely to have
adverse environmental impacts.
2. Scoping

This stage identifies key issues and impact that
should be further investigated. This stage also
defines the boundary and the time limit of the
study. Significance is usually determined through
the socio-economic criteria. After the areas, where
the project could have significant impact, are
identified,
3. Baseline Data
Environmental impact can never be predicted with absolute
certainty, and this is all the more reason to consider all possible
factors and take all possible precautions for reducing the
degree of uncertainty.

The following impacts of the projects should be assessed:
AIR
NOISE
LAND
BIOLOGICAL
SOCIO-ECONOMIC
4. Assessment of Alternatives

Mitigation Measure and Environmental Impact
Assessment Report For every project possible
alternative should be identified and environmental
attributes compared.
Alternatives for project location & process
technologies
Development of a Pollution
Control System
What is a Process?

A process is broadly defined as an operation that uses resources
to transform inputs into outputs.
It is the resource that provides the energy into the process for the
transformation to occur.
Input

Resource Output
PROCESS
Why Process Control?

Safety First
• People, Environment, Equipment

The Profit Motive
• Meeting final product specs
• Minimizing waste production
• Minimizing environmental impact
• Minimizing energy use
• Maximizing overall production rate
thermostat
controller
set point TC TT
temperature heat loss
sensor/transmitter (disturbance)

control
signal

fuel flow furnace
valve

Copyright © 2007 by Control Station, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Give example
1. Safety of
Equipment &
personnel T6 PC Vapor
Product
2. Production
Specification of
T1 T5
quality & T2
quantity
3. Operational F1 T4 T3 L1
Constraints
4. Environmental
Regulations F2 F3
A1 Liquid
5. Economics Process Steam product
fluid L. Key
No flow could
1. Safety of damage the
Equipment & pump T6 PC Vapor
personnel Product

2. Production
Specification of T1 T2
T5
quality & Feed
quantity
F1 T4 T3
3. Operational L1
Constraints
4. Environmental
F2 F3
Regulations
A1 Liquid
5. Economics Process Steam product
fluid L. Key
A control system is called on to satisfy ……

1. Suppressing the influence of external
disturbances
2. Ensuring the stability of a chemical process
3. Optimizing the performance of a chemical
process
1. Suppressing the influence of external disturbances
2. Ensuring the stability of a chemical
process
3. Optimizing the performance of a
chemical process
Selection of the most appropriate control device
requires consideration of the pollutant being
handled and the features of the control device.
Often, poor system performance can be attributed
to the selection of a control device that is not
suited to the -pollutant characteristics.
Three methods generally considered for cooling
gases below 500°F are dilution with cool air,
quenching with a water spray, and the use of
cooling columns.
Air Pollution Abatement

Best available control technology (BACT)
Air pollution control equipment
Those suitable for removing particulates
Removed by mechanical forces
Those associated with removing gaseous pollutants
Chemical and physical means
Plant location
1. Raw materials availability
2 . Markets
3 . Energy availability
4 . Climate
5 . Transportation facilities
6 . Water supply
7 . Waste disposal
8 . Labor supply
9. Taxation and legal restrictions
1 0 . Site characteristics
11. Flood and fire protection
1 2 . Community factors
1. Raw materials availability
2. Markets
3 . Energy availability
4 . Climate
PROCESS INTEGRATION
AND PINCH TECHNOLOGY
Energy Consumption
Energy Consumption
Energy reserves
Introduction

Developed countries take energy very much for
granted.
High-tech computer reliant society
USA which consumes approximately 26% of the all
world’s energy, while having only 4.4% of the
world’s population.
Inequalities between rich and poor nations
Climate change
Energy Consumption and GDP

It is estimated that per capita energy consumption
rose from approximately 4000 kilocalories per day,
in the age of the hunter-gatherer, to approximately
21 000 kilocalories per day, in Europe prior to the
Industrial Revolution
USA, per capita energy consumption has reached
approximately 250 000 kilocalories per day
strong link between per capita energy
consumption and economic growth
Heat Integration

Substantial reduction in the energy requirements
of a process
In recent years much work has been done on
developing methods for investigating energy
integration.
Efficient design
Trade off between energy and capital cost
Pinch Technology

The prime objective of pinch analysis is to
achieve financial savings by better process
heat integration (maximizing process-to-process
heat recovery and reducing the external utilities).

Energy Conservation
Minimizing the utility loads
Trade off between energy cost and capital cost
Example: Two stream system
Given Data
Energy Reduction?
Temperature vs Enthalpy
T* interval Temperature (°C)
2
245
235
4
195
185
145
75
3
35
25
1
T* interval Stream Population
(ΣCPC – Surplus/D
ΔTinterval
Temperature
(°C) ΣCPH) ΔHinterval eficit
(°C) 2
245
10 -0.15 -1.5 Surplus
235
4 40 0.15 6.0 Deficit
195 0.15

0.3
10 -0.1 -1.0 Surplus
185

0.25
40 0.1 4.0 Deficit
145
0.2

70 -0.2 -14.0 Surplus
75
3
40 0.05 2.0 Deficit
35
10 0.2 2.0 Deficit
25
1
T* interval T* interval
Temperature (°C) Hot Utility MW Temperature (°C) Hot Utility MW

0 245
245 7.5
ΔH = -1.5 ΔH = -1.5
235
235 1.5 9.0
ΔH = 6.0 ΔH = 6.0
195
195 -4.5 3.0
ΔH = -1.0 ΔH = -1.0
185
185 -3.5 4.0
ΔH = 4.0 ΔH = 4.0
145
145 -7.5 0
ΔH = - 14.0 ΔH = -14.0
75
75 6.5 14.0
ΔH = 2.0 ΔH = 2.0
35
35 4.5 12.0
ΔH = 2.0 ΔH = 2.0
25
25 2.5 10.0
Cold Utility Cold Utility
Network design above pinch (AP) Network design below pinch (BP)
CPh ≤ CPc CPc ≤ CPh
PINCH
250° 203.3° 106.7°
150°
2 C 40°

10.0MW
200° 150°
4 80°

140° 52.5° 20°
180° 1
8.0MW 17.5MW 6.5MW
205° 140°
230° H 3
181.7°
7.5MW 7.0MW 12.5MW