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The Special Senses

Eye and Associated Structures

 70% of all sensory receptors are in the eye

 Most of the eye is protected by a cushion of fat and
the bony orbit
 Accessory structures include eyebrows, eyelids,
conjunctiva, lacrimal apparatus, and extrinsic eye

 Coarse hairs that overlie the supraorbital margins

 Functions include:
 Shading the eye
 Preventing perspiration from reaching the eye

 Orbicularis muscle – depresses the eyebrows

 Corrugator muscles – move the eyebrows medially
Facial Muscles
Palpebrae (Eyelids)

 Protect the eye anteriorly

 Palpebral fissure – separates eyelids
 Canthi – medial and lateral angles (commissures)
Palpebrae (Eyelids)

 Lacrimal caruncle – contains glands that secrete a

whitish, oily secretion (Sandman’s eye sand)
 Tarsal plates of connective tissue support the eyelids
 Levator palpebrae superioris – gives the upper
eyelid mobility
Palpebrae (Eyelids)

 Eyelashes
 Project from the free margin of each eyelid
 Initiate reflex blinking

 Lubricating glands associated with the eyelids

 Meibomian glands and sebaceous glands
 Ciliary glands lie between the hair follicles
Palpebrae (Eyelids)

Figure 15.5b

 Transparent membrane that:

 Lines the eyelids as the palpebral conjunctiva
 Covers the whites of the eyes as the ocular
conjunctiva (konjunctiva bulbi)
 Lubricates and protects the eye
Lacrimal Apparatus

 Consists of the lacrimal gland and associated ducts

 Lacrimal glands secrete tears
 Tears
 Contain mucus, antibodies, and lysozyme
 Enter the eye via superolateral excretory ducts
 Exit the eye medially via the lacrimal punctum
 Drain into the nasolacrimal duct
Lacrimal Apparatus

Figure 15.6
Extrinsic Eye Muscles

 Six straplike extrinsic eye muscles

 Enable the eye to follow moving objects
 Maintain the shape of the eyeball

 Four rectus muscles originate from the annular ring

 Two oblique muscles move the eye in the vertical
Extrinsic Eye Muscles
Extrinsic Eye Muscles

Figure 15.7a, b
Summary of Cranial Nerves and Muscle Actions

 Names, actions, and cranial nerve innervation of the

extrinsic eye muscles

Figure 15.7c
Structure of the Eyeball

 A slightly irregular hollow sphere with anterior and

posterior poles
 The wall is composed of three tunics – fibrous,
vascular, and sensory
 The internal cavity is filled with fluids called
 The lens separates the internal cavity into anterior
and posterior segments
Eye and Associated Structures

 Structure of the Eyeball

The wall is composed of three tunics :
1. Fibrous Tunic
2. Vascular Tunic (Uvea)
3. Sensory Tunic (Retina)
Structure of the Eyeball

Figure 15.8a
Fibrous Tunic

 Forms the outermost coat of the eye and is

composed of:
 Opaque sclera (posteriorly)
 Clear cornea (anteriorly)

 The sclera protects the eye and anchors extrinsic

 The cornea lets light enter the eye
Vascular Tunic (Uvea): Choroid Region

 Has three regions: choroid, ciliary body, and iris

 Choroid region
 A dark brown membrane that forms the posterior
portion of the uvea
 Supplies blood to all eye tunics
Vascular Tunic: Ciliary Body

 A thickened ring of tissue surrounding the lens

 Composed of smooth muscle bundles (ciliary
 Anchors the suspensory ligament (Zonula zinnii)
that holds the lens in place
Vascular Tunic: Iris

 The colored part of the eye

 Pupil – central opening of the iris
 Regulates the amount of light entering the eye
 Close vision and bright light – pupils constrict
 Distant vision and dim light – pupils dilate
Pupil Dilation and Constriction

Figure 15.9
Controlled amount of light entering the eye

Bright light Normal light Dark

 The amount of light entering the eye is controlled by the

 Not all the light passing through the cornea reaches the
light sensitive photoreceptors, because of the presence of
the iris, a thin, pigmented smooth muscle that forms a
visible ringlike structure within the aqueous humor
The neural pathways of the pupillary reflexes
 The lens separates the internal eye into anterior and
posterior segments
 The posterior segment is filled with a clear gel
called vitreous humor that:
 Transmits light
 Supports the posterior surface of the lens
 Holds the neural retina firmly against the
pigmented layer
 Contributes to intraocular pressure
Anterior Segment
 Composed of two chambers
 Anterior – between the cornea and the iris (Camera
oculi anterior)
 Posterior – between the iris and the lens (Camera
oculi posterior)

 Aqueous humor
 A plasmalike fluid that fills the anterior segment
 Drains via the canal of Schlemm

 Supports, nourishes, and removes wastes

Anterior Segment

Figure 15.12
Formation and drainage of aqueous humor

 Aqueous humor is
formed by a
capillary network
in the ciliary body
(processus cilliaris
in the cilliary
 Drains into the canal
of Schlemm, and
eventually enters the
 A biconvex, transparent, flexible, avascular structure
 Allows precise focusing of light onto the retina
 Is composed of epithelium and lens fibers
 Lens epithelium – anterior cells that differentiate
into lens fibers
 Lens fibers – cells filled with the transparent protein
 With age, the lens becomes more compact and dense
and loses its elasticity
Mechanism of accommodation

(a) Suspensory ligaments extend from the ciliary muscle to the

outer edge of the lens
Mechanism of accommodation

(b) When the ciliary muscle is relaxed, the suspensory

ligaments are taut, putting tension on the lens so that it is flat and
(c) When the ciliary muscle is contracted, the suspensory ligaments
become slack, reducing the tension on the lens, allowing it to assume
a stronger, rounder shape because of its elasticity.

 Electromagnetic radiation – all energy waves from

short gamma rays to long radio waves
 Our eyes respond to a small portion of this spectrum
called the visible spectrum (cahaya tampak) 
400-700 nm
 Different cones in the retina respond to different
wavelengths of the visible spectrum

Figure 15.14
Refraction and Lenses

 When light passes from one transparent medium to

another its speed changes and it refracts (bends)
 Light passing through a convex lens (as in the eye)
is bent so that the rays converge to a focal point
Refraction and Lenses

Figure 15.16
Focusing Light on the Retina

 Pathway of light entering the eye: cornea, aqueous

humor, lens, vitreous humor, and the neural layer of
the retina to the photoreceptors
 Light is refracted:
 At the cornea
 Entering the lens
 Leaving the lens

 The lens curvature and shape allow for fine focusing

of an image
Focusing for Distant Vision

 Light from a
distance needs
little adjustment
for proper
 Far point of
vision – the
distance beyond
which the lens
does not need to
change shape to
focus (20 ft.)
Figure 15.17a
Focusing for Close Vision

 Close vision requires:

 Accommodation – changing the lens shape by
ciliary muscles to increase refractory power
 Constriction – the pupillary reflex constricts the
pupils to prevent divergent light rays from entering
the eye
 Convergence – medial rotation of the eyeballs
toward the object being viewed
Focusing for Close Vision

Figure 15.7b
Problems of Refraction

 Emmetropic eye – normal eye with light focused

 Myopic eye (nearsighted) – the focal point is in
front of the retina
 Corrected with a concave lens

 Hyperopic eye/Hypermetropic eye (farsighted) –

the focal point is behind the retina
 Corrected with a convex lens
Problems of Refraction

Figure 15.18
Lens refrractions

The refractive power of a lens is measured in diopters.

The dioptric power (D) of a lens is the reciprocal of the
focal length measured in meters:
A converging lens with a focal length of 1 m has a
power of 1 diopter. A lens with a focal length of 10
cm will have a power of 10 D and one with a focal
length of 17 mm (the approximate focal length of the
lens system of the human eye) has a dioptric power

For diverging lenses, the dioptric power is negative, so

that a diverging lens with a focal length of 10 cm has a
dioptric power of-10 D.
Case 1
A patient with hypermetropia has an eye with a focal length
of 59 D but the retina is only 16 mm behind the lens instead
of the usual 17 mm. What power of spectacle lens is
required for correction?

To bring parallel light into focus in 16 mm requires a

power of approximately 62.5D. Thus, in this case, a
converging lens of 62.5 - 58.8 = 3.7 D is needed. (i.e. a
converging lens of 3.7 D).
Case 2
A patient with myopia has an eye with a focal length of
59 D, but the retina is 18 mm behind the lens instead of
the usual 17 mm. What power of spectacle lens is
required for correction?

The lens system would need to be 55.5 D to bring

parallel light into focus on the retina. Thus a lens
of 55.5 - 58.8 = -3.3 D would be needed for
correction (i.e. a diverging lens of 3.3 D).

 55.5 D
18X10  3
Sensory Tunic: Retina

 A delicate two-layered membrane

 Pigmented layer – the outer layer that absorbs light
and prevents its scattering
 Neural layer, which contains:
 Photoreceptors that transduce light energy
 Bipolar cells and ganglion cells
 Amacrine and horizontal cells
Retinal layers
Retinal layers

The retinal visual pathway extends from the photoreceptor cells

(rods and cones, whose light-sensitive ends face the choroid away
from the incoming light) to the bipolar cells to the ganglion cells. The
horizontal and amacrine cells act locally for retinal processing
of visual input.
Sensory Tunic: Retina

Figure 15.10a
The Retina: Ganglion Cells and the Optic Disc

 Ganglion cell axons:

 Run along the inner surface of the retina
 Leave the eye as the optic nerve

 The optic disc:

 Is the site where the optic nerve leaves the eye
 Lacks photoreceptors (the blind spot)  papilla
nervi optici
Retina seen through the ophthalmoscope

(a) (b)

(a) A photograph and (b) an illustration of the optic fundus (back

of the eye). Optic nerve fibers leave the eyeball at the optic disc to
form the optic nerve. The arteries, arterioles, and veins in the
superficial layers of the retina near its vitreous surface can be seen
through the ophthalmoscope.
The Retina: Ganglion Cells and the Optic Disc

Figure 15.10b
The Retina: Photoreceptors

 Rods:
 Respond to dim light
 Are used for peripheral vision

 Cones:
 Respond to bright light
 Have high-acuity color vision
 Are found in the macula lutea
 Are concentrated in the fovea centralis
Blood Supply to the Retina

 The neural retina receives its blood supply from two

 The outer third receives its blood from the choroid
 The inner two-thirds is served by the central artery
and vein

 Small vessels radiate out from the optic disc and can
be seen with an ophthalmoscope
Functional Anatomy of Photoreceptors

 Photoreception – process by which the eye detects

light energy
 Rods and cones contain visual pigments
 Arranged in a stack of disklike infoldings of the
plasma membrane that change shape as they absorb
Functional Anatomy of Photoreceptors

Figure 15.19
Rods (Sel Batang)

 Functional characteristics
 Sensitive to dim light and best suited for night
 Absorb all wavelengths of visible light
 Perceived input is in gray tones only
 Sum of visual input from many rods feeds into a
single ganglion cell
 Results in fuzzy and indistinct images
Cones (Sel Kerucut)

 Functional characteristics
 Need bright light for activation (have low
 Have pigments that furnish a vividly colored view
 Each cone synapses with a single ganglion cell
 Vision is detailed and has high resolution
Cones and Rods

Figure 15.10a
Properties of Rod Vision and Cone Vision
Chemistry of Visual Pigments/ Photopigments

 Retinene or retinal is a light-absorbing molecule

 Combines with opsins to form visual pigments
 Similar to and is synthesized from vitamin A
 Two isomers: 11-cis (inactive) and all-trans (active)

 Isomerization of retinal initiates electrical impulses

in the optic nerve
Structure of rhodopsin

Position of
retinene1 (R) in the
rod disk membrane
Chemistry of Visual Pigments

Figure 15.20
Ionic Basis of Photoreceptor Potentials

 Na+ channels in the outer segments of the rods and cones

are open in the dark  current flows from the inner to
the outer segment and synaptic ending of the
 The Na+–K+ pump in the inner segment maintains ionic
 Release of synaptic transmitter is steady in the dark.
 When light strikes the outer segment  initiate close the
Na+ channels hyperpolarizing receptor potential.
 The hyperpolarization reduces the release of synaptic
transmitter  generates a signal in the bipolar cells 
leads to action potentials in ganglion cells The action
potentials are transmitted to the brain.
Effect of light on current flow in visual receptors

 In the dark, Na+

channels in the outer
segment are held open
by cGMP.
 Light leads to
increased conversion
of cGMP to 5'-GMP,
and some of the
channels close 
hyperpolarization of
the synaptic terminal
of the photoreceptor.
Excitation of Rods
 The visual pigment of rods is rhodopsin
(opsin + 11-cis retinal)
 Light phase
 Rhodopsin breaks down into all-trans retinal +
opsin (bleaching of the pigment)
 Dark phase
 All-trans retinal converts to 11-cis form
 11-cis retinal is also formed from vitamin A
 11-cis retinal + opsin regenerate rhodopsin
Excitation of rod

 In the dark, rhodopsin retinene1 is in the 11-

cis configuration.
 Action of light  change the shape of the retinene,
converting it to the all-trans isomer alters the
configuration of the opsin activates the associated
heterotrimeric G protein (transducin or Gt1).
 G protein exchanges GDP for GTP, and the subunit
separates. This subunit remains active until its
intrinsic GTPase activity hydrolyzes the GTP.
 Termination of the activity of transducin is also
accelerated by its binding of -arrestin.
Excitation of Rods

Figure 15.21
Excitation of Cones

 Visual pigments in cones are similar to rods

(retinal + opsins)
 There are three types of cones: blue, green, and red
 Intermediate colors are perceived by activation of
more than one type of cone
 Method of excitation is similar to rods

 Light energy splits rhodopsin into all-trans retinal,

releasing activated opsin
 The freed opsin activates the G protein transducin
 Transducin catalyzes activation of
phosphodiesterase (PDE)
 PDE hydrolyzes cGMP to GMP and releases it from
sodium channels
 Without bound cGMP, sodium channels close, the
membrane hyperpolarizes, and neurotransmitter
cannot be released

Figure 15.22
Sequence phototransduction in rods and cones

 Light activates retinen1 activates

 Gt2 in turn activates
phosphodiesterase, catalyzing the
conversion of cGMP to 5'-GMP.
 This results in closure of Na+
channels between the extracellular
fluid and the cone cytoplasm:
 decrease in intracellular Na+
 hyperpolarization of the cone
synaptic terminals.

 Adaptation to bright light (going from dark to light)

 Dramatic decreases in retinal sensitivity – rod
function is lost
 Switching from the rod to the cone system – visual
acuity is gained
 Adaptation to dark is the reverse
 Cones stop functioning in low light
 Rhodopsin accumulates in the dark and retinal
sensitivity is restored
Visual Pathways

 Axons of retinal ganglion cells form the optic nerve

 Medial fibers of the optic nerve decussate at the
optic chiasm
 Most fibers of the optic tracts continue to the
lateral geniculate body of the thalamus
 Other optic tract fibers end in superior colliculi
(initiating visual reflexes) and pretectal nuclei
(involved with pupillary reflexes)
 Optic radiations travel from the thalamus to the
visual cortex
Pathways to the Cortex
Visual Pathways

Figure 15.23
The neural pathways of the pupillary reflexes
Visual Pathways

 Some nerve fibers send tracts to the midbrain ending

in the superior colliculi
 A small subset of visual fibers contain melanopsin
(circadian pigment) which:
 Mediates papillary light reflexes
 Sets daily biorhythms
Functions of Visual Projection Areas in the Brain

V1 Primary visual
V2, V3, VP Continued
larger visual fields
V3A Motion
V4v Unknown
MT/V5 Motion; control of
LO Recognition of
large objects
V7 Unknown
V8 Color vision
Transection of visual pathways

 A lesion that interrupts one optic nerve causes blindness in

that eye (A).
 Lesions affecting the optic chiasm destroy fibers from both
nasal hemiretinas and produce a heteronymous (opposite
sides of the visual fields) hemianopia (B)  hemianopsia
 A lesion in one optic tract causes blindness in half of the
visual field (C) and is called homonymous (same side of
both visual fields) hemianopia (half-blindness). 
hemianopsia homonim
 Occipital lesions may spare the fibers from the macula (as in
D) because of the separation in the brain of these fibers from
the others subserving vision
Transection of visual pathways

 Blindness of the eye (A).

 Heteronymous
hemianopia (B)
 Homonymous hemianopia
 Occipital lession(D)
Depth Perception

 Achieved by both eyes viewing the same image

from slightly different angles
 Three-dimensional vision results from cortical
fusion of the slightly different images
 If only one eye is used, depth perception is lost and
the observer must rely on learned clues to determine
Depth Perception

 Left: two eyes viewing an

arrow lying in the frontal
plane (no stereopsis)
 Right: the arrow is inclined
into the third dimension—it
tends to point toward the
 Noncorresponding or
disparate, points on the retinas
can be projected to a single
point, and it is essentially this Represents the same object being viewed from
fusion of disparate images by different positions causing the image produced
within each eye to be different
the brain that creates the
impression of depth.
Thalamic Processing

 The lateral geniculate nuclei of the thalamus:

 Relay information on movement
 Segregate the retinal axons in preparation for depth
 Emphasize visual inputs from regions of high cone
 Sharpen the contrast information received by the
Cortical Processing

 Striate cortex processes

 Basic dark/bright and contrast information

 Prestriate cortices (association areas) processes

 Form, color, and movement

 Visual information then proceeds anteriorly to the:

 Temporal lobe – processes identification of objects
 Parietal cortex and postcentral gyrus – processes
spatial location
Color Vision

 Young & Helmholtz Trichromatic theory of color

 There is only one type of rod and this responds
strongly to bluish-green light
 Cones are divided into three categories, each of which
has a different sensitivity to light
 There are red light receptors, green light receptors
and blue light receptors.
 All colors of the visible spectrum can be seen by
mixing the 3 primary colours (red, blue and green)
 White objects reflect all colors to eye, black absorbs
all colours so no light to the eye.
Color Vision

 Young & Helmholtz Trichromatic theory of color

 There is only one type of rod and this responds
strongly to bluish-green light
 Cones are divided into three categories, each of which
has a different sensitivity to light
 "red" cones (64%)
 "green" cones (32%)
 "blue" cones (2%)
Trichromatic Theory

 The photocells in our retina, called cones are

responsible for our colour vision. There are 3 types
of cones, each with a different iodopsin (a
photosensitive pigment).
 Each type of iodopsin can absorb and respond to a
range of wavelengths:
 erythrolabe: max. absorption at 565nm (red)
 chlorolabe : max. absorption at 535nm (green)
 cyanolabe : max. absorption at 440nm (blue)
Wavelengths of light absorbed by different
Color vision
 Color vision is the capacity of an organism or machine to
distinguish objects based on the wavelengths of the light
they reflect, emit, or transmit.
 Human's perception of
colors is a subjective
 Brain responds to the
stimuli that are produced
when incoming light reacts
with the several types of
cone photoreceptors
Color vision

 The colour that our brain "sees" comes from the

integration of impulses from the three types of cones.

 The resultant color

depends on the
stimulation of
each, i.e. how
many of each kind
are stimulated.
Color mixing

 Primary additive or substractive

 Additive mixing is most intuitive
Add wavelengths:
 red+green = yellow
 red+blue = magenta
 blue+green = cyan
 red+green+blue=white
 Subtractive mixing is much less intuitive (but much
more common), subtractive mixing happens when
pigments are mix together
 Different pigments subtract different wavelengths
Additive primaries
 Media that combine
emitted lights to create
the sensation of a range
of colors are using the
additive color system.
Typically, the primary
colors used are red,
green, and blue.
 When all pigments in
conus are stimulated
together, it is produced
white color
Subtractive primaries

 Media that use reflected

light and colorants to
produce colors are using
the subtractive color
method of color mixing.
 Subtraction produce
black color

Colorant is something added to something

else to cause a change in color
Color blindness

 Defect of vision affecting the ability to distinguish

colors, caused by a defect in the retina or in other nerve
portions of the eye.
 Cause of color blindness:
 Genetic
 Aging
 Eye problems, such as glaucoma, macular
degeneration, cataracts, or diabetic retinopathy
 Injury to the eye
 Side effects of some medicines, overexposure to lead
or mercury
 Lesions of area V8 of the visual cortex
Genetic of CB

 Non CB male: XY
CB male: xY
 Non CB female: XX
CB female : xx
 CB carrier female: xX
Type of color blindness

 Monochromatism: Either no cones available or just one

type of them.
 Dichromatism: Only two different cone types, the third
one is missing completely.
 Anomalous trichromatism: All three types but with
shifted peaks of sensitivity for one of them. This results
in a smaller color spectrum.
Type of color blindness

 Dichromats and anomalous trichromats exist

again in three different types according to the
missing cone or in the latter case of its
 Tritanopia/Tritanomaly: Missing/malfunctioning
S-cone (blue).
 Deuteranopia/Deuteranomaly:
Missing/malfunctioning M-cone (green).
 Protanopia/Protanomaly: Missing/malfunctioning
L-cone (red).
Different forms of color vision deficiency

Type Denomination
Men Women
Monochromacy Achromatopsia 0.00003%
Protanopia 1.01% 0.02%
Dichromacy Deuteranopia 1.27% 0.01%
Tritanopia 0.0001%
Protanomaly 1.08% 0.03%
Deuteranomaly 4.63% 0.36%
Tritanomaly 0.0002%
Normal Achromatopsia
Normal Complete red CB

Complete green CB Complete Blue / yellow

deutranopia CB =Tritanopia
Color blind diagnoses
 Holmgren threads
 Pseudo Isochromatic Plate Ishihara and American
Optical HRR
 Farnsworth test
 Anomaloscope
 Medmont C-100 color vision tester
Tes Ishihara
 Found by Dr. Shinobu
Ishihara from Tokyo
University in 1917
 Most common and easy to
 Monochromatic dots of
basic color that create
number pattern
Ishihara test from color blind person
American Optical HRR (Hardy-Rand-Rittler)
Pseudoisochromatic Plates

1 2 3 4

5 6 7
Color blindness is not disease

 Same condition as hair and skin, just lack

of certain pigment in the eye cone.
 Unique characteristic of an individu