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INTEGUMENTARY

SYSTEM OF
VERTEBRATES
THE SKIN (in general)
The skin technically refers to the
vertebrate integument
It has the same basic structure in all
vertebrates, including fish, reptiles, birds,
and humans and other mammals.
It is the largest organ with respect to
surface area of the vertebrate body
THE SKIN: layers
Epidermis
The outermost layer of epithelial tissue
Dermis
Thicker than the epidermis
Made up of a thick layer of connective tissue and one
to several cells thick
Contains the blood vessels, nerves, glands and
auxiliaries
Hypodermis
Layer below the epidermis made up of loose
connective tissues and adipose tissues
SKIN OF JAWLESS FISHES
LAMPREY They have relatively
thick skin
Of the several types of
epidermal glandular
cells, one secretes the
protective cuticle
HAGFISH
Multicellular slime
glands secrete large
amount of mucous to
cover the body surface
for protection
SKIN OF CARTILAGINOUS FISHES
Multilayered and contains COOKIE-CUTTER SHARK
mucus and sensory cells
The dermis contains bones in
the form of placoid scales
called denticles
Denticles contain MANTA RAY
blood vessels and
nerves and is very
familiar to
vertebrate teeth
SKIN OF bony FISHES
BOWFIN They contain scales
A thin layer of dermal tissue
overlaid the superficial
epidermis normally covers the
scales
Because scales are not shed,
they grow at the margins and
BROWN BULLHEAD over the lower surface
Their skin are permeable and
can be used in gas exchange
Mucus are at help in fighting
off bacterial and fungal
infection at the surface
SKIN OF amphibians
Amphibians are transitional
between aquatic and
terrestrial vertebrates
Consists of stratified
epidermis and a dermis GREEN FROG
containing mucus and HELLBENDER
serous glands plus
pigmentation cells
The earliest amphibians
were covered by dermal
bone scales
SKIN OF REPTILES
KING COBRA Their skin reflects their
greater commitment to a
terrestrial existence
The outer layer of the
epidermis (stratum
corneum) is thick, lacks
glands, and is modified into
keratinized scales, scutes,
plaques and beaks
The thick keratinized layer
resists abrasion, inhibits
dehydration and protects
ALLIGATOR like a suit of armor
SKIN OF BIRDS
Over most of the birds body, BALD EAGLE
the epidermis is usually thin
and only two or three layers
thick
The most prominent part of
the epidermis are the feathers
(collectively known as
plumage)
Feathers are derived from the
scales of reptilian ancestors
and are, most complex of all
derivatives of the vertebrate
stratum corneum
SKIN OF BIRDS: feathers
 Feathers, provides the strong yet
lightweight surface area needed for
powered, aerodynamic flight.
 They also serve as insulation,
trapping pockets of air to help birds
conserve their body heat.
 The varied patterns, colors, textures, FISCHER’S LOVEBIRDS
and shapes of feathers help birds to
signal their age, sex, social status, and
species identity to one another.
 Some birds have plumage that
blends in with their surroundings to
provide camouflage, helping these
birds escape notice by their
predators. AFRICAN JACANA
SKIN OF MAMMALS
Mammalian skin’s notable
ENDAGERED SIBERIAN TIGER
features include:
Hair,
A variety of epidermal glands
than in other vertebrate class,
A highly stratified cornified
epidermis,
And a dermis many times
thicker than the epidermis
The prevention of dehydration
is one of the evolutionary
reasons mammals and other
animals have been able to
colonize terrestrial
HORSE (ARABIAN)
environment
SKIN OF MAMMALS: functions
It forms a barrier that helps prevent harmful
microorganisms and chemicals from entering the
body
It also prevents the loss of life-sustaining body fluids
It protects the vital structures inside the body from
injury and potentially damaging ultraviolet rays of
the sun
The skin also helps regulate body temperature,
excretes some waste products, and is an important
sensory organ
It contains various types of specialized nerve cells
responsible for the sense of touch
SKIN OF MAMMALS: structures

The skin consists of an outer, protective layer (epidermis) and an


inner, living layer (dermis) which contains blood vessels, lymphatic
vessels nerve endings, hair follicles, small muscles and glands.
The top layer of the epidermis is composed of dead cells
containing keratin, the horny scleroprotein that also makes up
hair and nails.
SKIN OF MAMMALS: glands
Sudoriferous Glands (Sweat Glands)
They secrete sweat by the process of perspiration which
helps regulate body temperature and maintains
homeostasis
Sebaceous Glands (Oil Glands)
They are connected to the hair follicles in the dermis
They lubricate and protect the skin by secreting sebum
Sebum is a permeability barrier and emollient – defense
against microorganisms and skin softening
SKIN OF MAMMALS: appendages
Hair
Composed of keratin
filled cells that develop
from the epidermis
2 Parts:
SHAFT – portion of the
hair that protrudes from
the skin
ROOT – portion of the
hair embedded beneath
Arrector Pili Muscle the skin

Attaches to the connective tissue sheath of the hair follicle


surrounding the bulb of the hair root
When the muscle contracts, it pulls the follicle and its hair to
erect position (goosebumps)
SKIN OF MAMMALS: appendages
Nails
Like hair, nails are
modification of the epidermis
They are flat horny plates on
the dorsal surface of the distal
segments of the digits
They are made of dead cells
containing the protein keratin
3 Parts:
the concealed ROOT
the BODY, which is exposed but attached to skin
and the EDGE
The nail grows out from the addition of new cells at the
root