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FOOD SERVICE EQUIPMENTS

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
•CATEGORIZING FOOD SERVICE EQUIPMENTS WITH EXAMPLES

•GAINING KNOWLEDGE ABOUT TYPES OF DINING FURNITURE


,THEIR SIZES,AND USES
•UNDERSTANDING USAGE OF VARIOUS LINEN AND THEIR SIZES

•NAPKIN FOLDS

•TYPES OF CROCKERY AND THEIR USES

•IDENTIFYING THE PARTS AND TYPES OF GLASSWARE,THEIR


SIZES,USES AND SELECTINGAPPROPRITE GLASSWARE
•DESCRIING FLATWARE ,CUTLERY AND HOLLOWWARE WITH
EXAMPLES AND UNDERSTAND THEIR USES
•NAMING VARIOUS PIECESOF SPECIAL SERVICE EQUIPMENT AND
APPRECIATING THEIR USES
•UNDERSTANDING THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF
DISPOSABLES
•POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED WHILE PURCHASING FOOD SERVICE
EQUIPMENTS
•STORAGE OF SERVICE EQUIPMENTS
INTRODUCTION
 FOOD SERVICE EQUIPMENTS ACCORDING TO THE
STANDEX FOOD SERVICE EQUIPMENT
GROUP(FSEG) INCLUDES EVERYTHING FROM
REFRIGERATION AND COOKING TO
MERCHANDISING AND LIQUID PUMPIMG ALL
PIECES OF EQUIPMENTS OF FURNITURE CUTLERY
CROCKERY GLASSWARE AND SO ON USED BY THE
GUESTS AND THE STAFF IN THE SERVICE AREA
COMES UNDER FOOD SERVICE EQUIPMENTS . A
WIDE RANGE OF FOOD SERVICE EQUIPMENT ARE
AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET TO SUIT THE
REQUIREMENT OF VARIOUS STYLES OF FOOD
SERVICE OPERATIONS .THE EFFICIENCY OF FOOD
SERVICE STAFF DEPENDS ON THE EQUIPMENT
AVAILABLE TO CARRY OUT THE WORK ASSIGNED
TO THEMSOME OF THE BASIC CATEGORIES
FOUND IN FOOD SERVICE OPERATION ARE
HIGHLIGHTED BELOW:
EQUIPMENT CATEGORY AND SOME
S. no. Category
EXAMPLES
Example
1. Furniture Tables , chairs , sideboards
2. Linen Tablecloth , buffet cloth , napkin , tray cloth ,
waiters cloth , slip cloth , satin cloth
3. Crockery quarter plate , half plate , full plate , soup plate ,
soup cup , soup bowl , cup and saucer ,and so on .
4. Glassware water goblet , wine glasses , champagne tulip,
saucer, flute, beer mug , pilsner glass and so on .
5. Tableware flatware – spoons and forks
cutlery – knives
hollowware – coffee pots, teapot, water jugs,
and so on .
6. Miscellaneous bud vase , table number , menu stand , cruets
equipment , ashtray , and so on .
7. Disposables paper napkins , disposable plates , cups , place
mats , table rolls and so on .
FURNITURE

 DINING ROOM FURNITURE IS AVAILABLE IN


VARIOUS SHAPES , SIZES , MATERIALS ,
COLOURS ,TEXTURES , AND DESIGNS. ALL
THESE ASPECTS MUST BE TAKEN INTO
ACCOUNT WHILE SELECTING THEM SO THAT
THE FURNITURE BLENDS WITH THE DÉCOR OF
THE FOOD SERVICE AREAS . FURNITURE
OCCUPY THE MAXIMUM SERVICE AREAS;
THEREFORE , THEY MUST BE ARRANGED
CAREFULLY FOR MAXIMUM SPACE
UTILAZITION THE COMMON ITEMS FOUND IN
FOOD SERVICE AREAS ARE TABLES , CHAIRS ,
AND SIDEBOARDS.
RESTAURANT TABLES
 Restaurant tables comes in different shapes and sizes
 TABLE TOPS are made up of different materials such as wood ,
mica , glass , stone , and so on. The standard table top shapes are
rectangular , square , and round .
 TABLE BASES are the holding post of tables and come in variety
of designs to match the theme and design of the dining area.
 COVER refers to a diner who eats or a meal is served. A cover
differ from table to table. The size of cover is 24” x 15”.
 BANQUET TABLES are available in various shapes and sizes .
The common ones are long and round tables . Though the
standard size of a long banquet table is 6’ x2.5’ which can
accommodate six covers , it is also available in 8’ x 2.5’which
accommodate eight covers. Other shapes are quarter moon , half
moon , serpentine and half round .
 The sizes of different tables are given below :
DIFFERENT SIZES OF TABLES
RESTAURANT CHAIRS
 Chairs usually comes in metal or wooden frames . Moulded
polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are also used in cafeterias and low
budget eateries . Chairs are available with or without arms .
 The standard size of chairs is as follows :
 Height of chair from floor to seat – 18”
 From floor to top of the chair -39”
 Depth of the chair – 18”
 BANQUET CHAIRS must be carefully selected as the
function host wants his/her guests to be comfortable
when they are seated. The chair chosen should be
stackable , comfortable and strong .
SIDEBOARD

 Food service personnel will not


be able to extend quick service
and work efficiently without
sideboards holds the necessary
cutlery , crockery , hollowware ,
menu cards , check pads ,
accompanying sauces , and so
on, that are required during
service . It is also termed as
dummy waiter and is equipped
with drawers , compartments ,
and shelves . one side board may
be assigned to 6-8 tables or 30
covers .
LINEN
 The term ‘linen’ in food service area covers
tablecloth , napkins , tray cloth , slip cloth ,
buffet cloth , waiters cloth , and tea cloth.
Extensive use of linen involves higher laundry
and replacement costs , which results in more
overheads (this should not be a constraint for not
using linen in exclusive restaurants that cater to
upscale market). Therefore , the fabric chosen
should be long lasting with non –fading colours
and must withstand frequent laundering and
stain removal process.
TABLECLOTH

 All tables with wooden top


are covered with tablecloth
to enhance the appearance
of the dining area .
Considering the minimum
fall of 9” from the edge of
the table , one can easily
calculate the size of table
cloth required.
NAPKINS
 Napkins are for guests’ use
,normally kept folded at each
cover and unfolded and spread
on laps of guests by service staff
or by guest themselves
depending on the situation.
There are two standard sizes of
napkins
• 18” x 18” for lunch
• 20” x 20” for dinner
 names of napkin foldings are;
• Bishop’s maitre
• Cocks comb
• Fan
• Sail , etc.
SLIP CLOTH
It is used to cover soiled
tablecloth during operations .
The size of slip cloth should
be adequate enough to cover
the surface of table with a fall
of a few inches . The cloth is
thin as compared to the table
cloth and can be washed
frequently.
WAITER’S CLOTH
It is used by waiters extensively
during service . The edges of
dishes are wiped by this cloth as
and when necessary . While
carrying dishes to the table , this
cloth is folded and kept under
the dish .the cloth should be
carried and folded just above the
wrist . The cloth should be
cleaned and should be changed
immediately if stained .
TRAY CLOTH
All trays and slavers should be
line d with tray cloth for better
presentation and good grip for
the items being carried .
However , the cloth becomes
wet and soiled while bussing as
these are often handled by
trainees which call for frequent
changing of tray cloth . To
avoid this problem , many
service operators line the tray
and salvers with rexin material
which can be wiped dry as and
when required . Old and worn
out table cloth may be
converted to tray cloth .
BUFFET CLOTH
Food service operators use
buffet cloth of various sizes to
cover the buffet table. As the
buffet tables are long , it is
always advisable to have longer
buffet cloth to avoid too many
overlapping . The centre crease
of the buffet cloth should run in
the middle of the table , to get
the centre crease in the middle
of the table and even buffet cloth
all over , it is prudent to have
buffet cloths of the same size
and all folded in the same way.
SATIN CLOTH
This cloth is draped around the front
side of the buffet table , primarily to
cover the legs and to make the buffet
counter attractive . If satin is in use ,
the wait staff must concentrate on
having the centre crease of the buffet
cloth running straight in the middle of
the buffet table and not on the even
fall of the cloth as this will be covered
with satin cloth . Satin is available in
many attractive colours and counters
may have satin of different colours .
TEA CLOTH
This is used exclusively for
wiping crockery and
cutlery . The cloth should
be lint free and changed
frequently . Most trainees
unknowingly use
tablecloth and tray cloth
for this purpose which
should be strongly
discouraged
CROCKERY
 Crockery includes all the items of earthenware or
chinaware such as plates , cups and saucers , pots , vases ,
and so on. The different types of chinaware available in the
market are as follows :
EARTHENWARE

It is made of 25% ball clay , 25% kaolin or clay , 15% china stone , and 35%
flint . The advantage of earthenware is that it is cheaper , but it is easily
chipped or cracked and much heavier than bone china.

BONECHINA

It is made of 25% china clay , 25% china stone ,and 50% calcium phosphate . It
is strong and translucent .it looks beautiful and is very expensive . Nowadays
manufacturers have introduced crockery that have a quality of bonechina , but
is less expensive . They are stronger than earthenware and less expensive as
compared to bonechina .
PORCELAIN
It is made up of 50% china clay , 25% quartz , and 25%feldspar
(aluminosilicate material). It is vitreous and translucent , with a grey
and blue tinge. It is used in oven-to-tableware dishes.

STONEWARE
It is hard , tough and vitreous crockery , fired at high temperature . It is
heavy and available in bright colours , suitable for restaurants where
bright colour crockery is required .
PRINTING DESIGNS ON CROCKERY
There are two methods of printing designs /logo on crockery –under glaze and
on glaze .

UNDER GLAZE
In this method , a logo or a design is printed on the crockery after one firing and
they are glazed and fired again . The pattern is completely under the cover of
glaze and will not wear out .
ON GLAZE
In this method , the design is printed after glazing and fired . This method is less
resistant to wear than the under glaze method .
CROCKERY AND THEIR SIZES AND
USES
GLASSWARE
 Food and beverage service outlets use the variety of glasses for
different types of drinks which call for a huge investment in delicate
and fragile equipment . The style , quality , and sparkle of selected
portray the profile of the restaurant .
 Glasses have any or all of the following parts :
#Bowl #base or foot #stem
Glassware is classified into the following three types according to their
parts :
TUMBLER- it is basically a bowl without stem or foot . Its sides may be
straight , widened , or curved . Example :rock glass , old fashioned ,
highball , Collins , juice glass and so on .
FOOTED WARE- in this type , the bowl sits directly on a base or foot
without the stem . The bowl and the base may come in a variety of
shapes . Examples are brandy balloon and beer goblet .
STEMWARE – It refers to glasses that have all three parts – bowl , base ,
and stem. In this type the stem connects the bowl with the base or
foot . Examples are red wine glass , white wine glass, champagne
saucer, champagne flute , cocktail glass , and so on .
The capacity of glasses is either measured in ‘out’ ,’oz’,or
’ml’, the glassware capacities are commonly expressed in ‘oz’
(ounce). One fluid ounce =28.4 ml. practically it is taken as
30ml

DIFFERENT TYPES OF GLASSWARE


DRINKING GLASSES AND THEIR USES
GLASSES AND THEIR SIZES
TABLEWARE
 The term tableware refers to all pieces of flatware, cutlery , and
hollowware.
FLATWARE
 In catering parlance , flatware means all forms of spoons and forks
while cutlery denotes all types of knives and other cutting
implements used in the dining area . However cutlery is the common
term frequently used in the hotel industry to refer to spoons, forks,
and knives used for eating . The term flatware is seldom used during
operations.
CUTLERY
 Cutlery is available in various design in silver, plated silver, and
stainless steel material . The type of metal needed for the service
operation depends on the profile of the restaurant and the capital
available . Silver and plated silver are expensive, suitable for high
class dining operations . Burnishing machine, polivit, and plate
powder methods are used for retaining the shine and to remove
stains .
HOLLOWWARE
This refers to all tableware other than cutlery . It includes pots , jugs ,
platters , butter dish , finger bowls , wine chiller , straw holder , and
so on.
SELECTION CRITERIA FOR CUTLERY
ITEMS OF CUTLERY AND THEIR USES
SPECIAL AND MISCELLANEOUS
EQUIPMENT AND THEIR USES
 The table given below gives the list of hollowware
and other special equipment and their uses. Though
the list covers important equipment , it does not
cover the entire range of special equipment . Some
items listed will be found in all types of food service
operations and the rest according to the menu
offered. The list also shows where these pieces of
equipments are kept. The areas identified for storing
these equipments are sideboard, pantry, still room,
hot plate, garde manger, and the sweet section
.before understanding where each equipment is
stored, let us have an insight to the areas
mentioned.
 SIDEBOARDS
It holds items that are frequently needed during service .
 PANTRY
It is located between the service area and the kitchen . It has a refrigerator ,
water cooler , cupboards , stainless steel topped tables , linen box for
collecting soiled linen , hot water facility , and sinks . The items that are
rarely needed are stored in cupboards of the pantry .
 STILL ROOM
Dishes such se toast , breakfast egg preparations , juices , coffee , tea , etc ., are
prepared in the still room .
 HOT PLATE OR PICKUP COUNTER
This counter is controlled by the aboyeur . As and when the order is placed by
the waiter ,the aboyeur (barker) shouts the order to the kitchen staff
concerned and get it done . The member of the kitchen staff need food
containers in which the dishes are to be served . Entrée dishes , silver flats ,
and so on , are stored near the hot plate/pickup area for quicker access.
 GARDE MANGER
Certain cold dishes such as salads , appetizers , shellfish cocktails , and smoked
fish are collected from the garde manger section (cold section) of the
kitchen . Containers in which are to be presented are stored in this area.
 SWEET SECTION
Some sweets are set in individual dishes and kept in the sweet section till the
order is received . Such food containers are stored i the sweet section of the
kitchen .
DISPOSABLES
 Disposables are extensively used in all types of catering operations ,
though the degree of usage is varied . Flight catering , industrial catering
, fast food outlets , off premises catering , coffee shops , take away
counters , and so on use more disposables to reduce labour and laundry
cost , initial investments and breakages. A wide range of disposables is
available in different colours , size , quality and prices to suit the needs
of catering operators. Some of the disposables available are as follows :
• Disposables place mats , banquet table rolls , an d coasters replace
tablecloth.
• Disposable cups , plates , knives spoons , and forks substitute chinaware
and cutlery.
• Paper napkins replace cloth napkins .
• Cling film is used to wrap up portioned food.
• Aluminium foil is used to wrap food to retain heat in takeaways.
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
 The advantages of disposables  The disadvantages of
are as follows: disposables are as follows :
 Reduces investments on  Operators heavily depends
chinaware , cutlery , and linen . upon the availability of
 Cuts down labour and number of disposables .
equipment needed for washing
 It creates litter, especially
 Cuts down laundry cost during off premises catering .
 Avoids losses due to breakage It is obligatory for service
 Minimum storage space is providers to place trash bins
required. and to organize refuse
 Can be procured easily as and disposable teams to collect
when required at short notice disposables frequently .
 Easy to transport
 Improved standard of hygiene
 Good sales promotional tools as
manufacturers can print as per
the needs of the operator .
PURCHASE CONSIDERATION FOR
FOOD SERVICE EQUIPMENT
 A wide range of food service equipment from
a toothpick stand to a gueridon trolley with
varying quality and dimensions is available in
the market . A careful selection on the basis
of quantity and quality is of paramount
importance as it involves cost . The points
discussed in this section must be taken into
account while purchasing food service
equipment:
LIST OF SPECIAL EQUIPMENTS , THEIR
USES , AND STORAGE AREA
MISCELLANEOUS FOOD SERVICE
EQUIPMENTS
 CAPITAL AVAILABLE
Availability of cash with the promoters or management
governs the quality and quantity of all categories of
services equipment required for the food service
operations .
 TYPE OF CLIENTELE
The type of target clientele determines the quality of
equipment required . Most of the service equipment is
for guests’ use , the quality of which speaks about the
profile of the restaurant.
 STYLE OF SERVICE
The food service style influences the type and quality of
food service equipment required . Hence, before
initiating purchases , service styles that are planned for
each dish/meal should be ascertained .
 LOCATION
The location determines the profile of the guests and style
of service , which in turn influences purchase decisions on
service equipment.
 EFFICIENCY AND DURABILITY
The service equipment chosen for a particular type of
restaurant must be efficient and durable . The cost of
operations –electricity , gas, labour, consumable
materials, and so on, should be less compared to the
equipment of same size and output.
 COST OF MAINTENANCE
The maintenance cost of any equipment should be
minimum . Most service equipment is used by guests
and it is, therefore , essential to ensure that they are
always clean , polished , and are damage free .
 MENU ITEMS
The manufacturers of cutlery , crockery , and glassware deal
with a wide range Of products of various material , shape
, finish , and cost . The menu item dictate the type of
service equipments required .
 REPLACEMENT
The operators should find it easy to replace damaged
service equipment without any hassles . If the
replacement is going to be uncertain in future, it is not
advisable to go for that equipment the availability of
service equipment for replacement is of prime
importance while selecting service equipments.
 TYPE OF MEAL ON OFFER
Some restaurant operate only during lunch and dinner ,
others remains open throughout the day offering all
three major meals , along with snacks and beverages.
STORAGE OF SERVICE
EQUIPMENTS

 Storing the food service equipment property


is an important as the consideration while
purchasing them. Poorly stored equipment
leads to breakage and shorter period of life .
The food service staff should be given
adequate training on the correct way of
storing various food service equipment.
 CROCKERY
Thoroughly washed and dried crockery should be stored in
piles of 20 or 25 for easier counting . The pile should not
be to high as this may lead to toppling and breakage .
The height of the pile depends on the thickness of plates
.
 GLASSWARE
Cleaned and polished glasses should be stored upside down
in a cupboard or shelves lined with paper . In most food
operations , glasses are stored in plastic coated wire
racks . This method facilitates effective transporting of
glasses and prevent breakage to a large extent.
 LINEN
Linen of different sizes and colours should be neatly folded
and stored together in linen rack or cupboards lined with
paper . The inverted fold of linen should be facing outside
for easier counting and picking up .
 CUTLERY AND HOLLOWWARE
Well cleaned and polished cutleries required during service are
stored in the compartmental drawers of sideboards. Each
compartment meant of specific type of cutlery is lined with
baize to prevent noise and scratch marks .
 FURNITURE
Other than banquets , no other service areas in the hotel will
have extra furniture because of the cost involved in excess
furniture and storage space . In case of banquets we need
furniture of different shapes and sizes to organise various
seating arrangements for different occasions . Chairs are
stacked and covered with cloth to prevent them from dust
and the collapsible tables are stacked one over the other .