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Geography of Europe Land of Fire, Ice and Tourist
Presented By: GROUP 3

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Surface: Europe has a total land area of 10,180,000 sq km. Location: Europe is bordered on the north by the Barents Sea, west by the Atlantic Ocean, and south by the Mediterranean Sea. Population: Europe has approximately 731,000,000.

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Official Language: Europe has no official language.COM . Time Zone: WWW. Climate: Europe climate remains temperate and mild.UNIQUEPLACES. The EU encourages all its citizens to be multilingual. with cool summers and cold winters.

Europe is the world's second-smallest continent by surface area. Of Europe's approximately 50 states. Europe is the third-most populous continent after Asia and Africa. Russia is the largest by both area and population while the Vatican City is the smallest. WWW.UNIQUEPLACES.COM . with a population of 731 million or about 11% of the world's population.

MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Western extremity of Eurasia Lingering world influence High degrees of specialization Manufacturing dominance Numerous nation-states Urbanized population High standards of living WWW.UNIQUEPLACES.COM 6 .

UNIQUEPLACES. ‡ Navigable waterways ‡ Moderate distances WWW.RELATIVE LOCATION ‡ At the heart of the land hemisphere ‡ Maximum efficiency for contact with the rest of the world ‡ Every part of Europe is close to the sea.COM 7 .

‡ Europe has a high-latitude northerly location. WWW. ‡ Much of Europe lies north of the conterminous United States (north of the 49th parallel).COM 8 .UNIQUEPLACES. and Norway has many communities located as far north as the northern mainland of Canada.4% of the global surface (2. miles).Location ‡ Excluding Russia. Europe occupies only 3. ‡ Scotland lies in the same general latitude as Hudson Bay.509 sq.284.

interior are more than 1600 km (1000 miles) from salt water.UNIQUEPLACES.COM 9 . By contrast. WWW. parts of the U.Location Europe has 13 landlocked states: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Andorra Austria Belarus Czech Republic Slovakia Hungary Liechtenstein Luxembourg Switzerland Macedonia Moldova San Marino Vatican City Most places in Europe are no more than 640 km (400 miles) from the sea.S.

fjords ‡ Scandinavia. geologically older ‡ Important deposits of metals and coal Alpine Mountains ‡ High mountains. a prominent feature of Europe. Germany.COM 10 ‡ Active volcanoes in southern Europe: Mt. Vesuvius . salt. Brittany. Largest cultivated region ‡ Most densely populated of Europe's land regions Central Uplands ‡ Lower and less rugged than mountain regions. potash. natural gas. steeply sloping land ‡ The Alps.Physical Geography -. rugged plateaus.UNIQUEPLACES. Dinaric Alps. iron ore.771 feet) WWW. Denmark. Mt. Belgium. Poland. the Baltic states. and the Carpathians ‡ Highest peak is Mont Blanc 4807 meters (15. The Netherlands.Landforms ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Western Uplands (Northwestern Highlands) ‡ Hard. the Apennines. Belarus and Russia ‡ Rich in natural resources. includes parts of France. Aetna. the Pyrenees. Portugal Spain North European Plain (Lowland) ‡ Extensive region. coal. Scotland. geologically ancient rock ‡ Shaped by glaciation thin soils. Ireland. Iceland.

UNIQUEPLACES.778. WWW. is sparsely populated. the Netherlands and Luxembourg Benelux.COM 11 . after East Asia and Southern Asia.800. ‡ Extremely high population densities are found in western European countries. ‡ Europe is the third largest population cluster. especially Belgium. ‡ Population densities are not as high in Eastern and Southern Europe.Population Geography ‡ Europe s 2003 population was 582. ‡ Generally highly literate and skilled. with the exception of Denmark. ‡ Nordic Europe.

‡ Western European countries have a higher percentage of population living in cities than Eastern Europe.UNIQUEPLACES.COM ±France --. ‡The least urbanized ‡The most urbanized countries are: countries are: ±Belgium ± 97% ±Iceland ± 94% ±United Kingdom ± 90% ±Germany ± 86% WWW.Urban Geography ‡ Europe is among the most highly urbanized regions of the world. ‡ Europe's proportion of urban population has grown from 54% in 1950 to 73% in 2003.74% ±Bosnia-Herzegovina ± 40% ±Albania ± 46% ±Moldova ± 46% 12 .

According to the law of the primate city. a country s leading city is disproportionately large and exceptionally expressive of national capacity and feeling. (Mark Jefferson. 1939).UNIQUEPLACES.COM 13 . Examples:        Paris personifies France London personifies the UK Amsterdam personifies the Netherlands Warsaw personifies Poland Athens personifies Greece Vienna personifies Austria Stockholm personifies Sweden WWW.Urban Geography The urban system of many European countries follows the law of the primate city.

style suburbanization.UNIQUEPLACES. as in London.S. ‡ European city-scapes differ from North American cities due to: ± Long histories ± Scarce land ± Strong government control of urban land development ‡ The internal spatial structure of the European metropolis consists of the central city and its suburban ring. WWW.COM 14 .Urban Geography ‡ The trend in European urbanization is toward U.

based on language and religion. WWW.COM 15 . ‡ Europe is a cultural mosaic.UNIQUEPLACES.Cultural Geography ‡ The cultural geography of Europe is very diverse and complex.

in Turkish foothold in Europe ‡ Semitic Family Maltese.COM 16 . spoken on island of Malta ‡ Basque Family spoken by the Basques of Southwestern France and Northern Spain WWW. Karelian.Language Groups ‡ Indo-European Family (Major group. detail in next slide) ‡ Urallic Family ± Finnic ‡ Northwest (Finnish.UNIQUEPLACES. Estonian) ‡ Lapp ‡ Ugrian (Hungarian) ‡ Altaic Family Turkish.

an outlier of the Roman empire.Indo-European Family of Languages ‡ Teutonic (Germanic) English. Danish and Icelandic). Norwegian. ‡ Romanic (Latin) French (French and Walloon). Bulgarian) ‡ Baltic Latvian and Lithuanian ‡ Illyrian -.Greek ‡ Celtic Irish. Breton WWW. Spanish (Castilian and Catalan).Byelo-Ruthenian). Romania. Italian (Italian and Sardinian). ‡ Slavic Western Slavic (Polish.COM 17 . Gaelic. Czech and Slovak).UNIQUEPLACES.Albanese ‡ Hellenic -. Flemish and German) and Scandinavian (Swedish. Serbo-Croat. Romanian (Romanin and Vlakh). Ukrainian. Southern Slavic (Slovene. Romansch (Rhaeto-Romanic). Welsh. Portuguese (Portuguese and Galician). German-Dutch (Dutch. managed to retain its Romance language. Eastern Slavic (Russian.

COM 18 . and is the religion of many immigrants to northwestern Europe from the Middle East and North Africa. ‡ Religion as a unifying (centripetal) cultural force has been unable to overcome the disunifying (centrifugal) force of nationalism in Europe.Religion ‡ The predominant religion in Europe is Christianity. ‡ Islam is the predominant religion of Albania.UNIQUEPLACES. WWW.

‡ Northern Italy s Lombardy (anchored by Milan). ‡ Southern Germany's Baden-Württemburg (anchored by Stuttgart).COM Ukraine: Donbas 19 . ‡ Northeastern Spain s Catalonia (anchored by Barcelona). Other important European industrial regions: ‡ Sweden: ‡ Switzerland: ‡ Poland: ‡ Austria: ‡ Italy: Venice ‡ Spain: Bilbao ‡ WWW.Major Industrial Regions of Europe The Four Motors of Europe are: ‡ Southeastern France s Rhone-Alpes region (anchored by Lyon).UNIQUEPLACES.

SPATIAL INTERACTION ‡ Movement across geographic space ‡ Involves contact of people in two or more places for the purposes of exchanging goods or ideas ‡ Principles ± Complementarity ± Transferability ± Intervening opportunity WWW.COM 20 .UNIQUEPLACES.

UNIQUEPLACES.The British Isles: Four regions The South London is the center.000 inhabitants. ‡ London is Europe s largest city (7. ‡ 20.000 total UK population (33.000 of the 59.000.000. ‡ The Green Belt (1944) is a zone for recreation and farming set aside to surround London in order to stem and channel the city s vast urban sprawl WWW.800.944 people) and the world s ninth largest ‡ Metropolitan London has a conurbation area of 12.COM 21 . one of the worlds largest.4%) live in the South region.650.

± 50.000 jobs were lost in the 1980s.UNIQUEPLACES. ± Revitalization efforts have met with limited success. Long term impact uncertain.The British Isles: Four regions ‡ The North (North of Bristol-Norwich line) ± Dominated by economic stagnation following the decline of the industrial base of the country. ± Suffering cities: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Manchester Leeds Sheffield Birmingham Liverpool 22 WWW.COM .

WWW. ± Scotland s industrialization focused on the Clyde and Firth of Forth because of nearby coal.COM 23 . iron ore and the excellent port of Glasgow. remote highland territories.The British Isles: Four regions ‡ Scotland and Wales ± Rugged.UNIQUEPLACES. ± Southern Wales (Cardiff-Swansea) is a depressed industrial region.

COM the restructuring of the political framework of the United 24 Kingdom.UNIQUEPLACES.The British Isles: Four regions ‡ Northern Ireland ± Part of the United Kingdom ± Capital city Belfast ± Comprises six counties: Antrim. Down. Fermanagh. ± Historical religious conflict between the Catholics and Protestants ± Religious make-up: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Catholic Presbyterian Church of Ireland Methodist 35% 29% 24% 5% ± Devolution (1976): the disintegration of a nation state as a result of reviving regionalism. Londonderry. and Tyrone. the redistribution of authority and WWW. among the proposals under consideration is the . Armaugh.

Mountain Europe: Switzerland and Austria ‡ Both are landlocked countries framed by the Alps. ‡ Both capitalize on their environments as winter resort destinations for the rest of Europe and the world. WWW. their historical experiences are quite different. ‡ While having similar environments.UNIQUEPLACES.COM 25 .

MEDITERRANEAN EUROPE ‡ Six Countries: Portugal. Italy. Spain. Malta. ‡ Separated by mountains and water from the Western European core. one shared by Spain and Portugal. lying on three peninsulas. two occupied singly by Greece and Italy.UNIQUEPLACES. ‡ Common cultural heritage dating from Greco-Roman times . Cyprus ‡ A discontinuous region. Greece.MOIST WINTERS WWW.COM 26 . ‡ Mediterranean climate dry summer subtropical ± HOT .DRY SUMMERS ± WARM/COOL .

COM 27 . NONE OF ITS STATES COULD MEET THE CRITERIA FOR MEMBERSHIP IN THE EU ‡ REACHES INTO THE RUSSIAN ZONE OF INFLUENCE WWW.UKRAINE INCORPORATES EUROPE S POOREST COUNTRY -ALBANIA ‡ IN 1990.EASTERN EUROPE (REGIONAL IDENTIFIERS) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ EUROPE S LARGEST REGION ADJOINS 3 OF 4 OTHER EUROPEAN REGIONS CONTAINS THE MOST COUNTRIES INCLUDES EUROPE S LARGEST STATE -.UNIQUEPLACES.

UNIQUEPLACES.A RUSSIAN EXCLAVE ‡ LATVIA ± SIMILAR HISTORY TO LITHUANIA ± CONSTITUTE BARE MAJORITY IN OWN COUNTRY ‡ BELARUS: RUSSIA S CLOSEST ALLY WWW.COM 28 .COUNTRIES FACING THE BALTIC SEA ‡ POLAND ± ± ± ± A CLASSIC NATION-STATE TRADITIONALLY AGRARIAN .SILESIA WARSAW . REGAINED IN 1991 ± KALININGRAD .PRIMATE CITY ‡ LITHUANIA ± LOST INDEPENDENCE IN 1940.WHEAT POST WWII INDUSTRY .

MOST RURAL PART OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA ‡ HUNGARY ± A NATION-STATE OF 10 MILLION ± BUDAPEST.UNIQUEPLACES. ± PRAGUE.THE LANDLOCKED CENTER ‡ CZECH REPUBLIC ± The regions most westernized country.COM 29 .a classic PRIMATE CITY ‡ SLOVAKIA ± THE LEAST DEVELOPED.A CLASSIC PRIMATE CITY WWW.

COUNTRIES FACING THE BLACK SEA ‡ BULGARIA: LIBERATED BY RUSSIA IN 1878 ‡ ROMANIA: A FORMER ROMAN PROVINCE. OIL. RAW MATERIALS (COAL. IRON ORE. NATURAL GAS) ‡ MOLDOVA: AGRICULTURAL ‡ UKRAINE: LARGEST AND MOST POPULOUS.UNIQUEPLACES. AGRICULTURAL AND NATURAL RESOURCES AVAILABLE WWW.COM 30 .

LOWEST ECONOMIC RANKING IN EUROPE WWW. VOJVODINA. 21% ALBANIAN ‡ SERBIA-MONTENEGRO: INCLUDES SERBIA. 70% MUSLIMS. KOSOVO.COM 31 . ETHNICALLY MOST HOMOGENEOUS ‡ CROATIA ‡ BOSNIA: CENTRALLY POSITIONED ‡ SERBIA: LARGEST AND MOST POPULOUS ‡ MACEDONIA: 65% MACEDONIAN.UNIQUEPLACES.COUNTRIES FACING THE ADRIATIC SEA ‡ SLOVENIA: FIRST TO SECEDE. AND MONTENEGRO ‡ ALBANIA: REMNANT OF TURKISH OTTOMAN EMPIRE.

UNIQUEPLACES.THANK YOU QUERIES IF ANY? WWW.COM 32 .

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